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Online training to improve problem-solving skills has become increasingly important in management learning. In online environments, learners take a more active role which can lead to stressful situations and decreased motivation. Gamification can be applied to support learner motivation and emotionally boost engagement by using game-like elements in a non-game context. However, using gamification does not necessarily result in supporting positive learning outcomes. Our analysis sheds light on these aspects and evaluates the effects of points and badges on engagement and problem-solving outcomes. We used an experimental approach with a fully randomized pre-test/post-test design of a gamified online management training program with 68 participants. The results demonstrate that points and badges do not directly improve problem-solving skills but are mediated by emotional engagement to positively influence problem-solving skills. Additionally, satisfaction with the gamification learning process positively relates to emotional engagement. Thus, when creating online training programs, it is essential to consider how to engage students and to think about the design of the learning environment. By identifying the limitations of gamification elements, the study’s results can provide educators with information about the design implications of online training programs for management learning.

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Innovation is one of the most important antecedents of a company's competitive advantage and long-term survival. Prior research has alluded to teamwork being a primary driver of a firm's innovation capacity. Still, many firms struggle with providing an environment that supports innovation teams in working efficiently together. Thereby, a team's failure can be attributed to several factors, such as inefficient working methods or a lack of internal communication that leads to so-called innovation blockages. There are a number of approaches that are targeted at supporting teams to overcome innovation blockages, but they mainly focus on the collaboration process and rarely consider the needs and potentials of individual team members. In this paper, we argue that Conversational Agents (CAs) can efficiently support teams in overcoming innovation blockages by enhancing collaborative work practices and, specifically, by facilitating the contribution of each individual team member. To that end, we design a CA as a team facilitator that provides nudges to reduce innovation blocking actions according to requirements we systematically derived from scientific literature and practice. Based on a rigorous evaluation, we demonstrate the potential of CAs to reduce the frequency of innovation blockages. The research implications for the development and deployment of CAs as team facilitators are explored.

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Voice assistants’ (VAs) increasingly nuanced and natural communication opens up new opportunities for the experience of users, providing task assistance and automation possibilities, and also offer an easy interface to digital services and ecosystems. However, VAs face various problems, such as low adoption and satisfaction rates as well as other negative reactions from users. Companies, therefore, need to consider how individuals utilize VAs and what contributes to user satisfaction. Key for the design of VAs are their unique affordances and their agentic nature that distinguish these IT artifacts from non-agentic IS. A configurative and dynamic approach enables to shed light on the complex causalities underlying user outcomes with these novel systems. Consequently, we examine in this study how individuals actualize the affordances of VAs during the initial adoption stage. For this purpose, we draw on a diary study research design that examines affordance actualization processes with new VA users. We examine with a configurational approach, how the actualization of VA affordances contributes to the outcomes of VAs, i.e., in our case user satisfaction. The results of our diary study show distinct patterns of functional affordance configurations. In addition, we show that affordances unfold and evolve over time. The derived implications provide a configurative theoretical understanding for the role of VAs affordances for user satisfaction that provides practitioners useful guidance to actualize the potential of VAs.

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Designing for system trustworthiness promises to address challenges of opaqueness and uncertainty introduced through Machine Learning (ML)-based systems by allowing users to understand and interpret systems’ underlying working mechanisms. However, empirical exploration of trustworthiness measures and their effectiveness is scarce and inconclusive. We investigated how varying model confidence (70% versus 90%) and making confidence levels transparent to the user (explanatory statement versus no explanatory statement) may influence perceptions of trust and performance in an information retrieval task assisted by a conversational system. In a field experiment with 104 users, our findings indicate that neither model confidence nor transparency seem to impact trust in the conversational system. However, users’ task performance is positively influenced by both transparency and trust in the system. While this study considers the complex interplay of system trustworthiness, trust, and subsequent behavioral outcomes, our results call into question the relation between system trustworthiness and user trust.

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In-company training is facing new challenges in preparing employees for the demands of digitalized and automated manufacturing. New training concepts like microlearning are necessary to support work-process-related learning. To handle the limitations of microlearning, we develop a 360-degree learning system to demonstrate a realistic work environment. Nonetheless, there is a lack of design knowledge supporting the motivation and performance of employees using the system. Based on a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews, we have developed design requirements for interactive 360-degree learning environments. We used a workshop-based mixed-method approach with interviews, concept maps, and video analysis to evaluate the motivation and performance of precision mechanics within a prototypical work-process-oriented learning environment in an inter-company vocational training center. The results show a positive effect on learning outcomes and motivation. In addition, the ease of use and sense of presence while using the learning environment are rated as high. We contribute to theory by shedding new light on learners' motivation and performance within work-process-oriented interactive 360-degree learning environments. Furthermore, we offer guidelines for developing such interactive 360-degree learning environments.

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Driven by circumstances like the global pandemic many learners and educators realize the importance and value of self-regulated digital learning. To better support self-regulated learning, conversational agents have become more relevant. Conversational agents can act as tutor or as learning mate for learners. Although conversational agents have potential to better support self-regulated learning processes, challenges exist requiring implications about how to make these interactions more engaging and supportive. This study discusses the value of gamified conversational learning chatbots that use game elements to engage learners to guide researchers and practitioners to design conversational agents that effectively motivate learners and provide self-regulated learning at the same time. Therefore, we propose a systematically developed framework for gamifying educational conversational agents and contribute to theory by consolidating several theories about games, digital learning, and conversational agents and support practitioners by providing implications about what to care about when gamifying conversational agents

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Today’s servitized and digitalized society has significant implications for the economic system as value creation increasingly shifts towards digital services. Organizations are increasingly relying of artificial intelligence, which enables them to operate with novel technological artifacts like conversational agents (CA). These human-like AI-driven artifacts open new possibilities and channels for service providers to scale up their business even further and to create a business value or even to make processes more efficient. While we witness the results of that each day, we do not fully understand how such CAs can contribute to scaling up a business. Therefore, we conduct an analysis of service research and popular CAs to determine the status quo and highlight opportunities for scaling services with CAs. We contribute to theory by clarifying the meaning of scalability in combination with CAs and support practitioners by providing an overview about how organizations successfully scale their CAs.

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The increasing digitalization and automatization in the manufacturing industry as well as the need to learn on the job has reinforced the need for much more granular learning, which has not yet impacted the design of learning materials. In this regard, granular learning concepts require situated learning materials to support self-directed learning in the workplace in a targeted manner. Co-creation approaches offer promising opportunities to support employees in the independent design of such situated learning materials. Using an action-design research (ADR) approach, we derived requirements from co-creation concepts and practice by conducting focus group workshops in manufacturing and vocational training schools to develop design principles for a co-creation system that supports employees through the creation process of work-process-related learning material. Consequently, we formulate four design principles for the design of a collaborative learning and qualification system for manufacturing. Using an innovative mixed methods approach, we validate these design principles and design features to demonstrate the success of the developed artifact. The results provide insights regarding the design of a co-creation system to support learners in the co-creation of learning material with the consideration of cognitive load (CL). Our study contributes to research and practice by proposing novel design principles for supporting employees in peer creation processes. Furthermore, our study reveals how co-creation systems can support the collaborative development of learning materials in the work process.

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Design science projects are of great interest in information systems (IS) research. Typically, design-oriented projects generate valuable design knowledge through the design and possible instantiation of artifacts. Although designing novel artifacts and accumulating design knowledge is common practice in IS, there is still limited shared knowledge about the distinctive characteristics of design knowledge to facilitate its accumulation. To address this issue, we develop a design knowledge taxonomy and contribute to a deeper understanding of design knowledge properties. The taxonomy is grounded on a systematic literature review, followed by a combination of empirical-to-conceptual and conceptual-to-empirical iterations. We evaluate the taxonomy by interviewing six domain experts and demonstrate its practical application and utility. Thus, the taxonomy consists of key dimensions and characteristics of design knowledge and contributes to a better scientific understanding of its characteristics. Practitioners can use the taxonomy as an instrument to further understand, design, and accumulate design knowledge.

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To ensure that an intended target group accepts and uses an information system (IS) is a major challenge for service systems engineering and a key interest in IS research. On the one hand, individuals’ cultural values affect their willingness to use an IS; on the other hand, information technology (IT) is neither value-neutral and, thus, also affects IT acceptance and usage. Therefore, the adaptation of IS should consider both sources of value. Thus, in this paper, we present the theory-driven design of a method for culture-sensitive IS adaptation that draws on IT-culture conflict theory. Our two-fold evaluation approach results show that the method enables to create feasible results for developing culture-sensitive design solutions for IS. As a theoretical contribution, we contribute to the exploration of culture in IS development; as a practical contribution, we provide guidance in how to adapt IS for specific target groups.

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Intelligent agents (IAs) are permeating both business and society. However, interacting with IAs poses challenges moving beyond technological limitations towards the human-computer interface. Thus, the knowledgebase related to interaction with IAs has grown exponentially but remains segregated and impedes the advancement of the field. Therefore, we conduct a systematic literature review to integrate empirical knowledge on user interaction with IAs. This is the first paper to examine 107 Information Systems and Human-Computer Interaction papers and identified 389 relationships between design elements and user acceptance of IAs. Along the independent and dependent variables of these relationships, we span a research space model encompassing empirical research on designing for IA user acceptance. Further we contribute to theory, by presenting a research agenda along the dimensions of the research space, which shall be useful to both researchers and practitioners. This complements the past and present knowledge on designing for IA user acceptance with potential pathways into the future of IAs.

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Design Thinking has become a well-established approach to solving wicked problems through creative and conceptual solutions. Thus, Design Thinking approaches usually end with finding novel solutions but do not offer support in the practical implementation of these solutions. To bridge the gap between finding creative solutions and implementing them into suitable end products, we see Design Patterns as a useful approach to combine the advantages of both sides—the human-centered Design Thinking approach and the practical implementation in system development. Design Patterns offer proven solutions to recurring problems and thus provide design knowledge to solve complex design problems. In this contribution, we demonstrate how Design Patterns act as a complement to Design Thinking by using the example of designing a lawful smart personal learning assistant. We use Design Thinking to extract the design solution of the lawful learning assistant and develop it with the help of Design Patterns. We demonstrate the use of Design Patterns by using the deletion routine Design Pattern as an example of how a Design Pattern can be used for lawful design in addition to their known fields of application in system development. The evaluation results show that the combination of Design Thinking and Design Patterns lead to an approach that not only identifies novel, complex solutions but also supports their practical implementation.

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The goal of design science research is the generation of novel artifacts. Thereby DSR projects generate valuable design knowledge, thus, underscoring the importance to codify of design knowledge for achieving scientific progress. The research community observes that DSR projects generate a large amount of design knowledge, but the developed knowledge often ends as a single success story. To counter this situation, we analyze the variety of design knowledge representation forms that have been published in the AIS Senior Scholars’ Basket in design science research papers. Based on our systematic literature review, we identify prevalent ways of design knowledge representations. We provide as a central contribution how to effectively communicate design knowledge through the derivation of recommendations that provides practical guidance to support researchers and practitioners in making design knowledge contributions reusable and applicable.

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get_appTim Weinert, Marian Thiel de Gafenco, Mattias Simon Billert, Andreas Janson, Jens Klusmeyer, Jan Marco Leimeister
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Digitale Lernsysteme sind heute viel mehr als reine Wissensdatenbanken, in welchen Mitarbeitende zentral abgelegte Wissensbausteine abrufen können. Mithin geht es um die Entwicklung solcher Wissensbausteine durch Mitarbeitende als eine zentrale Herausforderung bei der Gestaltung von digitalen Lernsystemen. Insbesondere deshalb, da bestehende Lernmaterialien oftmals nicht den Erfordernissen eines arbeitsprozessintegrierten Lernansatzes folgen. Dies liegt daran, dass die Lernmaterialien von Mitarbeitern erstellt werden, die nicht unmittelbar mit den alltäglichen praktischen Arbeitsprozessen vertraut sind. Gleichzeitig bieten neue Technologien wie Virtual Reality (VR) die Möglichkeit, Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter eine ganz neue Art von Lernerfahrung anbieten zu können. Von diesen Möglichkeiten sind viele Unternehmen aber noch weit entfernt, da das hierfür notwendige Lernmaterial nicht vorhanden ist. Dies liegt insbesondere an der Tatsache, dass es Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeitern an den erforderlichen Kompetenzen für die Entwicklung solcher Lernmaterialien fehlt, welche notwendig für die Gestaltung dieser ist. Um diese Herausforderungen zu begegnen, können Ko-Kreationskonzepte eingesetzt werden, um die Entwicklung von arbeitsprozessintegriertem Lernmaterial zu unterstützen. Diese Ko-Kreationskonzepte sollen Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter in die Lage versetzen, eigenständig hochwertige Lernmaterialien zu entwickeln (Weinert et al. 2022). Dabei fehlt es jedoch an konkreten Konzepten und Systemen, wie solche Ko-Kreationskonzepte für die Fertigungsindustrie gestaltet werden müssen, um Mitarbeitende strukturiert bei der Entwicklung eigener Lernmaterialien zu unterstützen. Dieser Problematik hat sich das Projektteam des BMBF-geförderten Projekts KoLeArn „Kontextsensitive Lerndienstleistungen im Arbeitsprozess der smarten industriellen Fertigung – Systematische Entwicklung und Pilotierung am Beispiel China“ gestellt. Im Rahmen des Projekts wurde ein Ko-Kreationssystem entwickelt, welches Mitarbeitenden ermöglicht, selbstständig arbeitsprozessbegleitende Lernmaterialien zu entwickeln und sie bei deren Einbindung in eine virtuelle Lernumgebung unterstützt. Diese Handlungsbroschüre soll zunächst eine Einführung in das arbeitsprozessintegrierte Lernen und in die Prozesse der Ko-Kreation von Lernmaterial bieten. Aufbauend wird das methodische Vorgehen hin zur Entwicklung unseres Systems erläutert, um die Einrichtung eines eigenen Lernsystems zu verdeutlichen. Abschließend werden verschiedene Einsatzszenarien skizziert, in welchen das System eingesetzt werden kann.

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Novel technologies such as smart personal assistants integrate digital services into everyday life. These services use personal data to offer personalized services. While they are subject to special data protection regulations at the time of development, there are few guidelines describing the transition from legal requirements to implementation. To reduce risks, services depend on external legal assessments. With developers and legal experts often missing either legal or technical knowledge, the challenge lies in bridging this gap. We observe that design patterns support both developers and legal experts, and we present an approach in which design patterns are leveraged to provide twofold value for both developers and legal experts when dealing with novel technologies. We conducted a revelatory case study for smart personal assistants and scaffolded the case interpretation through cognitive fit theory. On the basis of the findings, we develop a theoretical model to explain and predict the twofold value of design patterns to develop and assess lawful technologies.

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Gamification refers to the use of game-like elements in non-entertainment contexts to make activities more engaging and enjoyable to improve utilitarian outcomes. The gamification literature and the use of gamification in practice suggest that gamification can be a useful tool to support behavioral and psychological changes. Recent developments show that there is potential for new waves of gamification research. Therefore, we conducted a workshop at the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) 2021 to discuss the future of gamification with interested scholars. The discussion with 25 gamification experts led to a research agenda that supports the need for adaptive and personalized gamification designs. Together with the experts, we identify three clusters for future research: 1) the personalization of gamification concepts, 2) theories and concepts for gamified human-computer interaction, and 3) the “dark side” of gamification (e.g., addiction). We also address what the gamification concept means. Aligned with the three clusters, we provide valuable starting points for future research inquiries to help researchers better understand the nature of gamification. We also discuss the capabilities and limits of gamification.

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Since the emergence of conversational agents, this technology has seen continuous development and research. Today, advanced conversational agents are virtually omnipresent in our everyday lives. Albeit the numerous improvements in their conversational capabilities, breakdowns are still a persistent issue. Such breakdowns can result in a very unpleasant experience for users and impair the future success of conversational agents. This issue has been acknowledged by many researchers recently. However, the research on strategies to overcome conversational breakdowns is still inconclusive, and further research is needed. Therefore, we conduct a systematic literature analysis to derive conceptual conversational breakdown recovery strategies from literature and highlight future research avenues to address potential gaps. Thus, we contribute to theory of human-agent interaction by deriving and assessing recovery strategies and suggesting leads for novel recovery strategies.

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Voice assistants are a novel class of information systems that fundamentally change human–computer interaction. Although these assistants are widespread, the utilization of these information systems is oftentimes only considered on a surface level by individuals. In addition, prior research has focused predominantly on initial use instead of looking deeper into post-adoption and habit formation. In consequence, this paper reviews how the notion of habit has been conceptualized in relation to biographical utilization of voice assistants and presents findings based on a qualitative study approach. From a perspective of post-adoption users, the study suggests that existing habits persist, and new habits hardly ever form in the context of voice assistant utilization. This paper outlines four key factors that help explain voice assistant utilization behavior and furthermore provides practical implications that help to ensure continued voice assistant use in the future.

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Digitales Lernen ist ein zentraler Bestandteil der heutigen Bildungslandschaft geworden. Insbesondere Lernvideos haben in den letzten Jahren deutlich an Popularität gewonnen und Plattformen wie YouTube sind heute ein fester Bestandteil von Lernprozessen. Bildungseinrichtungen haben diese Entwicklung erkannt und Lernvideos in ihre Lernsysteme integriert. Allerdings sind die heutigen Lernvideos oft nicht sehr ansprechend, weil es an Gestaltungswissen mangelt, wie Interaktionen und gamifizierte Elemente die Motivation und den Lernerfolg steigern können. Dieser Mangel an Gestaltungswissen führt zu minderwertigen Lernvideos, die den Lernprozess der Lernenden meist nicht in dem Maße unterstützen, wie sie es könnten. Um effektive Lernvideos zu entwickeln, welche die Lernenden adäquat unterstützen, ist handfestes und praktisches Gestaltungswissen für die Lehrenden notwendig. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickeln wir Entwurfsmuster für interaktive gamifizierte Lernvideos, um Praktiker*innen bei der Erstellung effektiver Lernvideos anzuleiten, die die Motivation und das Engagement von Lernenden zu fördern, welche sie aktiv in ihrem Lernprozess unterstützen zu können. Wir setzen damit zusätzlich die Grundlage für zukünftige Forschung zur Gestaltung effektiver Lernvideos. Dabei folgen wir einem gestaltungsorientierten Forschungsansatz, um die Entwicklung unserer Entwurfsmuster zu systematisieren.

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Persuasive designs, including gamification and digital nudging, have become well renowned during the last years and have been implemented successfully across different sectors including education, e-health, e-governance, e-finance and general information systems. In this regard, persuasive design can support desirable changes in attitude and behavior of users in order to achieve their own goals. However, such persuasive influence on individuals raises ethical questions as persuasive designs can impair the autonomy of users or persuade the user towards goals of a third party and hence lead to unethical decision-making processes. In human-computer interaction this is especially significant with the advent of advanced artificial intelligence that can emulate human behavior and thus bring new dynamics into play. Therefore, we conduct a systematic literature analysis with the goal to compile an overview of ethical considerations for persuasive system design, derive potential guidelines for ethical persuasive designs and shed light on potential research gaps.

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Digital nudging is a promising approach from behavioral economics. In deci-sions where individuals tend to struggle, nudges can support users of digital systems by aligning their behavior with their preferences. Despite their wide use, most digital nudges are designed to support the intended behavior from the perspective of a company while neglecting potential legal, ethical, or individual constraints or preferences. With modern technologies such as artificial intelli-gence or big data, these issues multiply and with the increasing effectiveness of digital nudges and use of new technologies, this has become even more critical. Thus, in this paper we follow a Design Science Research approach to develop a process model for the systematic development of legitimate nudges (DELEN). Legitimacy requires that dealings between different entities shall be fair. Unlike other models, we set normative boundaries derived from literature, expert in-terviews, and target group segmentation as integral elements. Target group seg-mentation increases nudge effectiveness and avoids unnecessary burdens for other individuals. By doing so, the DELEN process model paves the way for legitimate and effective digital nudges.

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Argumentation is an omnipresent foundation of our daily communication and thinking. The ability to form convincing arguments is not only the fundament for persuading an audience of novel ideas but also plays a major role in strategic decision-making, negotiation, and productive civil discourse. However, students often struggle to develop argumentation skills due to a lack of individual and instant feedback in their learning journey, since providing feedback on the individual argumentation skills of learners is very time consuming and not scalable if conducted manually by educators. Following a design science research approach, we propose a new class of argumentation learning systems that provide students with individual and ongoing tutoring to support them in learning how to argue. We build our socio-technical design on a combination of user-centered design principles, a conceptualization of argumentation structures in student-written text, and Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning classifiers to provide individual feedback. To investigate if the new system class of AI-based argumentation tutoring systems helps students to improve their argumentation skills, we evaluated the novel artifact class in two empirical studies in comparison to traditional argumentation learning systems. In a laboratory experiment (study 1), as well as in a field experiment in a large-scale lecture over three months (study 2), we found that AI-based argumentation tutoring systems based on our design principles, argumentation schemes, and algorithms improve the short- and long-term argumentation skills of students significantly compared to the traditional argumentation learning approaches.

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Gendered voice based on pitch is a prevalent design element in many contemporary Voice Assistants (VAs) but has shown to strengthen harmful stereotypes. Interestingly, there is a dearth of research that systematically analyses user perceptions of different voice genders in VAs. This study investigates gender-stereotyping across two different tasks by analyzing the influence of pitch (low, high) and gender (women, men) on stereotypical trait ascription and trust formation in an exploratory online experiment with 234 participants. Additionally, we deploy a gender-ambiguous voice to compare against gendered voices. Our findings indicate that implicit stereotyping occurs for VAs. Moreover, we can show that there are no significant differences in trust formed towards a gender-ambiguous voice versus gendered voices, which highlights their potential for commercial usage.

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Several authors have illustrated the benefits of data in organizations. For realizing benefits, we see two major challenges for organizations. First, there are necessary investments, which have to be justified. Second, adequate data analytics competencies can be seen as enablers for realizing benefits. We aim to support organizations by showing relevant competencies and achievable business values. We present theoretical propositions and a research agenda on how to move the field of data analytics competencies forward.

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Driven by technological advances, smart personal assistants (SPA) have gained importance in human-computer interaction. SPAs can influence user behavior and persuade them towards an outcome. However, users often lack motivated to interact with SPAs. One way to support this interaction is persuasive system design; considering concepts as gamification and/or digital nudging. Although SPA research has increased recently, there is still no shared knowledge about persuasive designs. Therefore, we aim to identify the current state-of-the-art for persuasive SPA design to understand how interactions and designs can be improved referring to persuasive system design. Thus, we conduct a systematic literature analysis to represent how gamification and digital nudging are used to design SPAs and conclude if and how those concepts can support SPA interactions. Consequently, we contribute to theory, providing better understanding about SPA interaction and design making SPAs more engaging and entertaining. Practitioners can use this contribution for persuasive SPA designs.

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Die Digitalisierung verändert nicht nur unser privates, sondern auch unser Arbeitsleben. Immer mehr Daten über Individuen sind online verfügbar und werden für die Nutzung von bestimmten Online Services vorausgesetzt. Hierbei verlieren die Nutzenden oft den Überblick, wie und welche Daten sie von sich preisgeben. Dies birgt nicht nur das Risiko der Preisgabe von privaten Daten, sondern auch unternehmensseitig das Risiko, dass wichtige Daten außerhalb des Unternehmens veröffentlicht werden. Hier kann das Konzept des digitalen Nudgings angewandt werden, welches nunmehr auch als edukatives Privacy Nudging genutzt werden kann. Das Konzept bezweckt, Individuen durch bestimmte Elemente wie beispielsweise Defaults zu Verhaltensänderungen anzuregen. Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, einen Überblick darüber zu geben, welche Privacy Nudges es im edukativen Bereich gibt und wie diese mit verschiedenen Lerntheorien in Einklang gebracht werden können. Der Text soll Forschern und Praktikern eine Orientierung geben, selbst edukative Privacy Nudges zu gestalten und endet mit einem Fallbeispiel, das aufzeigt wie einfache Gestaltungsänderungen Individuen dazu anregen können, sich privatheitsfreundlicher zu verhalten und sorgsamer mit ihren privaten Daten umzugehen.

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Künstliche Intelligenz durchdringt immer stärker verschiedene Lebensbereiche und macht auch vor der beruflichen Bildung nicht halt. In diesem Zusammenhang gibt es derzeit vielfältige Diskussionen zur Rolle der menschlichen Intelligenz in zukünftigen Arbeitsprozessen und damit verknüpft Fragen zur Auswirkung auf die Aus- und Weiterbildung von Arbeitskräften. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es darzulegen, warum in den kommenden Jahrzehnten die effektive Kombination der komplementären Stärken von menschlicher und künstlicher Intelligenz im Sinne des Hybrid Intelligence (HI)-Gedankens im Vordergrund stehen wird. Anschließend werden Potentiale und Grenzen von HI im Kontext der beruflichen Aus- und Weiterbildung mit besonderem Fokus auf die Individualisierung von Lehr-/Lernprozessen diskutiert.

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Designing novel technologies provide challenges to developers. To support developers in designing these technologies, design knowledge must be codified and made applicable for the future. In systems development, design patterns provide proven solutions to solving recurring problems. They contain templates for describing design information, often in tabular form, and are established tools for making complex knowledge accessible and applicable. Design patterns play a critical role in both practice and research in finding potential solutions. For researchers, patterns can provide a method for codifying design knowledge for future research. For practitioners, design patterns provide established solutions to recurring problems. By applying them in a particular context, the pattern represents elements of both the problem-space and the solution-space, providing an opportunity to bridge the gap between the two spaces. Due to the abstraction of design patterns, they can be used for different application scenarios. The preparation of the design knowledge in the design pattern is a critical step to support the user in the best possible way, that determines the usefulness of the pattern.

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Beyond AI-based systems’ potential to augment decision-making, reduce organizational resources, and counter human biases, unintended consequences of such systems have been largely neglected so far. Researchers are undecided on whether erroneous advice acts as an impediment to system use or is blindly relied upon. As part of an experimental study, we turn towards the impact of incorrect system advice and how to design for failure-prone AI. In an experiment with 156 subjects we find that, although incorrect algorithmic advice is trusted less, users adapt their answers to a system’s incorrect recommendations. While transparency on a system’s accuracy levels fosters trust and reliance in the context of incorrect advice, an opposite effect is found for users exposed to correct advice. Our findings point towards a paradoxical gap between stated trust and actual behavior. Furthermore, transparency mechanisms should be deployed with caution as their effectiveness is intertwined with system performance.

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Die Covid-19 Pandemie hat zu enormen Veränderungen im Arbeitsalltag geführt. Videokonferenztools gewannen durch die Zusammenarbeit über Distanz an Bedeutung. In kürzester Zeit kamen in vielen Unternehmen Videokonferenztools verschiedener Hersteller zum Einsatz; der Datenschutz stand dabei in der Regel nicht an erster Stelle und es kam zu zahlreichen Datenschutzverstößen. Im Laufe der Pandemie rückte der Datenschutz mehr in den Fokus und es wurde nachgebessert. Wir wollen mit unserem Beitrag anregen Videokonferenztools nicht nur datenschutzkonform, sondern rechtsverträglich zu gestalten. Daher haben wir die Benutzeroberfläche eines Tools (Zoom) an den Stellen angepasst, an denen datenschutzsensibles Verhalten besonders kritisch ist. Wir zeigen, wie kleine Änderungen in der Benutzeroberfläche und die Integration von Privacy Nudges zu datenschutzsensiblem Verhalten führen können. Um diese sogenannten Privacy Nudges für Entwickelnde von Videokonferenztools so praktisch und zugänglich wie möglich zu machen, greifen wir auf das Konzept der Design Pattern aus der Systementwicklung zurück.

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Voice assistants’ increasingly nuanced and natural communication bears new opportunities for user experiences and task automation, while challenging existing patterns of human-computer interaction. A fragmented research field, as well as constant technological advancements, impede a common apprehension of prevalent design features of voice-based interfaces. As part of this study, 86 papers across domains are systematically identified and analysed to arrive at a common understanding of voice assistants. The review highlights perceptual differences to other human-computer interfaces and points out relevant auditory cues. Key findings regarding those cues’ impact on user perception and behaviour are discussed along with the three design strategies 1) personification, 2) individualization and 3) contextualization. Avenues for future research are lastly deducted. Our results provide relevant opportunities to researchers and designers alike to advance the design and deployment of voice assistants.

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Privacy nudging is a promising method to get users to disclose less personal information in digital work environments. In this work, we tested two digital privacy nudges: a social and a framing nudge. To empirically measure the effectiveness of the two privacy nudges, we developed an online experiment. We evaluated 223 data sets with the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and a two-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that privacy nudges negatively influence information disclosure behavior. The privacy framing nudge has a direct and indirect effect, while the privacy social nudge has only an indirect effect on the information disclosure behavior. Individuals exposed to the privacy nudges perceived the stimulus as threat. Importantly, both nudges spark negative feelings. With this research, we are contributing to the discussion of what drives privacy nudge effectiveness and influences information disclosure behavior in digital work environments.

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Higher legal standards with regards to the data protection of individu-als such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) are increasing the pressure on developers of IT artifacts. Typically, when developing systems, we subsequently evaluate them with users to elaborate aspects such as user experi-ence perceptions. However, nowadays, other evaluation aspects such as legality and data policy issues are also important criteria for system development. For this purpose, we introduce LEGIT (legal design science evaluation), which pro-vides developers with guidance when considering legal requirements. We use the case of the GDPR to illustrate the feasibility, applicability, and benefit to the de-velopment process. With this novel method adapted from law research, we are able to derive actionable guidance for developers to evaluate developer efforts in increasing legal compatibility. To illustrate our methodological approach, in this paper, we describe the key steps of the method with respect to the evaluation of a learning assistant. We develop an AI-based learning assistant for university stu-dents to demonstrate the application of the novel evaluation method. We briefly discuss how this procedure can serve as the foundation for a new evaluation method of legally compatible systems in design science research.

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In recent years, using game concepts for educational purposes in digital environments has become continually more popular and relevant. Games can be used to motivate and engage users in regular system use and, in the end, support learners in achieving better learning outcomes. In this context, different kinds of game concepts exist, such as gamification or serious games, each with a different perspective and usefulness in digital learning environments. Because developing and using with game concepts in digital learning environments has recently become more important, and developing them is still not fully established, questions arise about future research directions involving games in digital learning. Therefore, this study aims to identify the state of the field and determine what is relevant when using game concepts in digital learning. To achieve this goal, we present the results of a bibliometric analysis considering more than 10,000 articles between 2000 and 2019 and summarize them to develop a research agenda. This agenda supports researchers and practitioners in identifying avenues for future research. We contribute to theory by providing a detailed understanding of the relevance of game concepts in digital learning. We propose a research agenda to assist researchers in planning future approaches with and about gamification concepts in digital learning. Practical implications are proposed by demonstrating what should be considered when using game concepts in learning environments.

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In der Entwicklung informationstechnischer Systeme entstehen oft Zielkonflikte, die durch Gestaltung der Systeme aufgelöst werden müssen. Hierfür fehlt es Entwicklern, insbesondere bei Konflikten zwischen Rechtsverträglichkeit und Dienstleistungsqualität, oft an dem notwendigen Wissen und der erforderlichen Gestaltungserfahrung. Hier können Entwurfsmuster weiterhelfen. Der Beitrag stellt am Beispiel Smarter Persönlicher Assistenten einen Ansatz vor, in dem Entwurfsmuster interdisziplinäres Gestaltungswissen zusammenführen, geht auf die Besonderheiten des Gestaltungswissens der beiden Disziplinen ein und stellt ein beispielhaftes Entwurfsmuster vor.

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In online learning settings interactive and meaningful feedback is becoming increasingly important. However, feedback from teachers is oftentimes missing in online learning settings. To overcome challenges that arise from the missing representation of teachers, our study analyzes the relevance of avatar designs in learning settings. We therefore rely on avatars as game design elements and analyze how their design can influence emotional attachment, learning process satisfaction, and extraneous cognitive load in learning. To achieve our goal, we conduct a qualitative comparative analysis with 998 datasets that were collected in a 2x2x2 pre-post online experiment that was developed to train participants in learning functions in Excel. Our results indicate that interaction, familiarity, motivation, and aesthetic experiences are important configurations for avatars that are used in learning. We contribute to different streams of theory such as self-expansion and guide practitioners by providing implications about how to create meaningful avatar designs for learning applications.

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When using digital technologies, various data traces are left behind for collection, storage and analysis. Innovative solutions for information systems are needed that mitigate privacy risks and foster information privacy. One mechanism to achieve this are privacy nudges. Nudges are a concept from behavioural economics to influence individual’s decisions. This paper focusses on building an integrative understanding of privacy nudging. Specifically, we conceptualize the constituting characteristics of privacy nudges by conducting a systematic literature review to cover the current state of knowledge in the interdisciplinary privacy nudge literature stream. We structure the intrapersonal factors that determine effectiveness for each privacy nudge in a morphological box and conceptualize on this basis current research coverage as well as demand for future research. Finally, we develop theoretical propositions contributing to the discussion of how to study and design effective privacy nudges that can pave the way for more privacy sensitive IT systems.

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Viele Arbeitsprozesse in der Industrie werden zunehmend digitalisiert. Diese Entwicklung erfordert neue Kompetenzen, welche im Arbeitsprozess durch Ansätze wie mobile Applikationen erworben werden können. Aufgrund der Informationsfülle im Mobile Learning und den Spezifika solcher Endgeräte kann es zu einer kognitiven Überlastung des Lernenden kommenden, wodurch dieser Lerninhalte nicht mehr aufnehmen kann. Um diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen, schlagen wir den Einsatz von Gamified Feedback durch Avatare vor, welche als Lehrerergänzung die notwendigen Hilfestellungen und Informationen bereitstellen können. Hierzu wird im Kurzbeitrag eine Studie zur Untersuchung der Wirkungsweise von Gamified Feedback auf Cognitive Load von Lernenden im Mobile Learning präsentiert.

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Chatbots are innovative text-based dialogue systems that are oftentimes used in digital customer service encounters, since chatbots offer a lot of potential to optimize the relationship with the customer. However, chatbots face various problems, such as low adoption and satisfaction rates as well as other negative reactions from the customer. Companies therefore need to consider different design features when developing their chatbots. Key for designing chatbots is the use of anthropomorphic design elements. In this study, we examine the two anthropomorphic design elements of personification, which includes a human like appearance of the chatbot, and socially oriented communication, which means a more sensitive and extensive communication behavior. We tested the influence of the two design elements on social presence, satisfaction, trusting beliefs and empathy. The results of our experiment support a significant influence of the two anthropomorphic design elements on social presence. In addition, our findings show the central role of social presence concerning chatbot perceptions. First, social presence has a strong direct influence on trusting beliefs, empathy and satisfaction. Second, social presence acts as a mediator for both anthropomorphic design elements on satisfaction with a chatbot. The derived implications provide a theory for understanding anthropomorphic design elements related to chatbots and we offer design principles for practitioners that enable more effective chatbot implementations.

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Retargeting is an innovative online marketing technique in the modern age. Although this advertising form offers great opportunities of bringing back customers who have left an online store without a com-plete purchase, retargeting is risky because the necessary data collection leads to strong privacy con-cerns which, in turn, trigger consumer reactance and decreasing trust. Digital nudges – small design modifications in digital choice environments which guide peoples’ behaviour – present a promising concept to bypass these negative consequences of retargeting. In order to prove the positive effects of digital nudges, we aim to conduct an online experiment with a subsequent survey by testing the impacts of social nudges and information nudges in retargeting banners. Our expected contribution to theory includes an extension of existing research of nudging in context of retargeting by investigating the effects of different nudges in retargeting banners on consumers’ behaviour. In addition, we aim to provide practical contributions by the provision of design guidelines for practitioners to build more trustworthy IT artefacts and enhance retargeting strategy of marketing practitioners.

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Digitization changes our society, the way we work and the way we generate value in work systems. More precisely, it equally affects how business and employees organize their work. While there is a tremendous innovation potential for businesses such as more flexible and efficient work arrangements, there are also tremendous privacy risks. Such privacy risks especially relate to issues that employees leave data traces in every working step while being oftentimes not aware of their generated data. Employees leave data traces on intranet platforms such as Wikis and on external work tools such as Slack and reveal not only personal information but also company insights. At the same time companies must handle new privacy regulations such as the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which do not only affect companies in the European countries but also providers of information systems (IS) all around the world that offer their services in Europe. Thus, innovative approaches for considering challenges that exist because of privacy related issues are needed. A promising approach to overcome the aforementioned privacy issues of digital working environments is the application of digital nudges in IS – small design modifications in digital choice environments which guide peoples’ behavior (Weinmann et al. 2016). The nudge theory – originally derived from behavioral economics– is based on the irrational behavior of human beings. A nudge “is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people’s behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives” (Thaler and Sunstein 2008, p. 6) and is typically applied in offline environments, e.g., to nudge individuals for being organ donors through a default opt-in. By relying on the concept of nudging, individuals in digital work system could be nudged to improve their decisions when disclosing data. This is especially prevalent, since many individuals are not aware about how their data is used. As such, there is a lack of research regarding nudging in context of digital work systems and privacy which should be addressed in a socio-technical research approach. By examining the impact and perception of digital nudges in work systems, we want to shed light on the application, design and effects of nudges to overcome challenges that arise because of privacy related issues. We therefore first examine use cases and requirements for nudging in digital work system under the consideration of users, companies and other stakeholders. Since we draw on a socio-technical view, we incorporate requirements that relate to a legal as well as an ethical perspective for nudging privacy. By this means, we develop a design theory for privacy nudging by an iterative design and evaluation process in the field. The ultimate goal is to improve decisions concerning data disclosure and, secondary, increase by this means trust and acceptance of digital work systems by lowering privacy concerns. By developing a design theory, we contribute to the body of knowledge with a more profound understanding of digital nudging in the context of privacy as well as with prescriptive design knowledge for nudging in digital work systems.

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Mobile learning, offering learning anytime and anywhere, is becoming increasingly important for learning in the working process or on-the-go. However, mobile learning may overwhelm the learner due to its use in physical environments and demand for highly motivated learners. Therefore, gamified feedback is a promising way to both motivate learners and drive learning success. Nonetheless, systematic insights are missing on how to design gamified feedback for mobile learning. To investigate how gamified feedback contributes to motivation and learning success, we first develop a theoretical model based on ARCS and cognitive load theory. Second, we propose an experimental approach to analyze the effects of gamified feedback on motivation and learning success. Overall, we expect to better understand the effects of gamified feedback in mobile learning as a theoretical contribution with our experimental investigation. Finally, we aim to provide practical implications for mobile learning developers on how to use gamified feedback in the learning processes.

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Gamification focuses on using game-like elements in non-entertainment-based contexts. An example for a game element is an avatar. Although lots of research has focused on analyzing avatars in gamification, little is known about which kind of avatar design users prefer. Especially avatars in gamification that are used as tutors or mentors for learning purposes do not spark the interest of users. Thus, the goal of our paper is to analyze the kinds of avatar designs users of digital learning environments such as learning management systems would prefer. For that purpose, we use a best-worst scaling approach to analyze if the familiarity and shape of avatars determine user preferences in gamification. Our research will contribute to research and practice as it delivers implications about how to design avatars in gamified learning systems. We will enrich theory by getting a better understanding about the general meaning of user-centered avatar designs in gamification.

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Gamification is a well-known approach that refers to the use of game design elements in information systems to make monotonous and tedious tasks more enjoyable. However, research and practice show that game design elements are oftentimes chosen and integrated in information systems randomly, therefore impeding the outcomes of such systems. In this regard, taxonomies can guide system developers, i.e., in selecting and combining game design elements to gamify their information system. Nonetheless, existing taxonomies do not provide such guidance for gamifying information systems. Therefore, the goal of our research is to consolidate the state of the art of gamification research and rigorously develop a gamification taxonomy. To achieve our goal, we conducted a systematic literature review and developed a taxonomy based on a rigorous taxonomy development process. We evaluate our theory by providing evidence of its feasibility with two practical cases: First, we show how the taxonomy helps to analyze existing gamification approaches, and, second, how the taxonomy guides to gamify information systems. Overall, we enrich theory by introducing a new taxonomy to better explain the meaning and characteristics of game design elements. Likewise, practitioners will be guided in selecting and combining game design elements for their gamification approaches.

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Das Verbundprojekt KoLeArn (Kontextsensitive Lerndienstleistungen im Arbeitsprozess der smarten industriellen Fertigung – Systematische Entwicklung und Pilotierung am Beispiel China) entwickelt kontextsensitive Lernangebote, um deutschen Bildungsanbietern den effizienten und erfolgreichen Export ihrer Weiter- und Ausbildungsangebote nach China zu ermöglichen. Die digitalen Lernumgebungen richten sich in erster Linie an nicht-akademische Fachkräfte, die arbeitsprozessorientiertes Wissen im Rahmen der smarten industriellen Fertigung benötigen. Die Entwicklung und Pilotierung prototypischer Lerneinheiten erfolgt im Rahmen eines iterativen und gestaltungsorientierten Prozesses.

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