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This paper introduces a framework for managing bias in machine learning (ML) projects. When ML-capabilities are used for decision making, they frequently affect the lives of many people. However, bias can lead to low model performance and misguided business decisions, resulting in fatal financial, social, and reputational impacts. This framework provides an overview of potential biases and corresponding mitigation methods for each phase of the well-established process model CRISP-DM. Eight distinct types of biases and 25 mitigation methods were identified through a literature review and allocated to six phases of the reference model in a synthesized way. Furthermore, some biases are mitigated in different phases as they occur. Our framework helps to create clarity in these multiple relationships, thus assisting project managers in avoiding biased ML-outcomes.

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Dieser Artikel zeigt die zunehmende Relevanz von Business-to-Business-Online-Marktplätzen sowie deren Funktionsweise auf. Anschließend werden Designprinzipien vorgestellt, welche Unternehmen bei der Entwicklung eigener Business-to-Business-Online-Marktplätze auf strategischer Ebene unterstützen sollen. Die Designprinzipien wurden auf Basis einer Literaturrecherche und mehrerer Experteninterviews aufgestellt.

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) provides organizations with vast opportunities of deploying AI for competitive advantage such as improving processes, and creating new or enriched products and services. However, the failure rate of projects on implementing AI in organizations is still high, and prevents organizations from fully seizing the potential that AI exhibits. To contribute to closing this gap, we seize the unique opportunity to gain insights from five organizational cases. In particular, we empirically investigate how the unique characteristics of AI – i.e. experimental character, context sensitivity, black box character, and learning requirements – induce challenges into project management, and how these challenges are addressed in organizational (socio-technical) contexts. This shall provide researchers with an empirical and conceptual foundation for investigating the cause-effect relationships between the characteristics of AI, project management, and organizational change. Practitioners can benchmark their own practices against the insights to increase the success rates of future AI implementations.

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Dienstleistungsunternehmen mit dem Fokus auf die Unterstützung von Menschen (HCSSs) streben nach Dienstleistungsinnovationen (SIs), die durch Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie ermöglicht sind, um Kostendruck und begrenzte Ressourcen zu minimieren und ihr Geschäft voranzutreiben. Das Ergebnis der SI ist ein überarbeitetes Dienstleistungskonzept, das die Möglichkeit bietet, die Wertschöpfung der Dienstleistungen zu verbessern. In der Realität kommt der erwartete Nutzen dieser SI nie zum Tragen, weil das integrierte Design des Dienstleistungsgeschäfts nicht ausreichend berücksichtigt wurde. Die Integration von Dienstleistungsgestaltung und der Geschäftsmodellgestaltung ist entscheidend für die erfolgreiche Implementierung von SI. Ziel dieser Dissertation ist es, Designwissen zu entwickeln, das ein integriertes Dienstleistungsgeschäftsdesign für HCSS enthält und so die Vorteile von SI ermöglicht. Um das Design des Dienstleistungsgeschäfts für HCSSs zu verbessern, enthält die Dissertation einen Zwei-Phasen-Forschungsansatz. In der ersten Phase wird eine systematische Literaturrecherche über technisch gestützte SI in HCSSs durchgeführt, um die spezifischen Merkmale des Feldes zu untersuchen. Auf Basis dieses Wissens werden spezifische SI-Praktiken analysiert, um zu zeigen, was das Design des Dienstleistungsgeschäfts ausmacht. In der zweiten Phase wird dieses Wissen genutzt, um Designanforderungen und Designprinzipien als Designartefakt für die Innovation von HCSSs mit Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie zu entwickeln. Dieses Designwissen wird in einer realen Umgebung evaluiert, die auf die Entwicklung und Einführung von HCSSs abzielt. Das entwickelte Wissen bietet theoretische Beiträge und praktische Implikationen. Die Ergebnisse erweitern das Wissen über SI, indem sie den Stand der Forschung zusammenfassen und den SI-Prozess mit Schwerpunkt auf Technik detaillieren. Dieses SI-Wissen vermittelt ein Verständnis für die verschiedenen Rollen und Aktivitäten des Dienstleistungs- und Geschäftsmodelldesigns. Weiterhin liefern die Ergebnisse eine theoretische Grundlage für das Design von Dienstleistungsunternehmen. Diese Grundlage umfasst eine neuartige Kombination von Wertschöpfung und Werterfassung durch die Integration verschiedener Designansätze und die Detaillierung bestehender Designpraktiken. Die Ergebnisse liefern weiterhin die theoretische Grundlage für die Forschung über HCSS und die Konzepte für deren systematisches Design. Die spezifizierten Merkmale ermöglichen somit ein besseres Verständnis der Dienstleister von Strukturen, Prozessen und Geschäftslogik in HCSSs.

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get_appSacha Fuchs, Roman Rietsche, Stephan Aier, Michael Rivera
Konferenzbeitrag
More and more employees request feedback from their organizations to develop and learn. This is reflected by a growing number of digital feedback apps which facilitate high-frequency feedback exchange. However, the effect of feedback has hardly been studied on an organizational level due to complexity. Therefore, we strive to analyze organizational feedback exchange with an agent-based simulation model. Concretely, we study the effect of feedback length and feedback frequency on the organizational return on investment (ROI) of feedback exchange. Our study shows that feedback length stays in an inverted U-shape relationship with ROI. Contrarily, feedback frequency is negatively correlated with ROI. When analyzed jointly, two sweet spots arise: one for medium-length, frequent feedback, and the other, for longer infrequent feedback.

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Digitale Technologien, wie das Cloud Computing, elektronische Plattformen und die künstliche Intelligenz, ermöglichen die Verbesserung bestehender sowie die Innovation völlig neuer Produkte und Dienstleistungen in der Sportindustrie. Beispielsweise sind Over-the-top-Mediendienste wie DAZN oder Amazons Sport-Streaming-Initiative digitale Technologien, die eine massive Veränderung der Fernsehgewohnheiten von Sportfans fördern. Während die Digitalisierung der Sportindustrie viele Vorteile mit sich bringt, stellen digitale Technologien die Stakeholder der Sportindustrie in der Praxis häufig aber auch vor große Herausforderungen: Erstens haben sie aufgrund mangelnden Know-hows und fehlender Ressourcen Mühe, die positiven Auswirkungen der digitalen Technologien zu verstehen und auszuschöpfen. Zweitens erleichtern digitale Technologien die Integration neuer Akteure, die der Sportindustrie fortschrittliche Ressourcen, Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen zur Verfügung stellen. Dadurch verändert sich die Wettbewerbsdynamik und der Wettbewerb wird erhöht. Aus akademischer Sicht bietet diese fortschreitende Digitalisierung der Sportindustrie einzigartige Möglichkeiten, um Phänomene, die im Zusammenhang mit der Digitalisierung auftreten und in üblichen Geschäftskontexten nicht leicht zu beobachten sind, zu analysieren. Daher haben Xiao et al. (2017) eine Forschungsagenda für die Information-Systems(IS)-Disziplin aufgestellt zum Thema warum und wieso wir die Digitalisierung in der Sportindustrie untersuchen sollten. Die vorliegende kumulative Dissertation umfasst fünf Publikationen (I – V), die sich mit aus der Praxis abgeleiteten Problemen befassen und aufzeigen, wie digitale Technologien in der Sportindustrie angewendet werden können. Publikation I untersucht den aktuellen Stand der Forschung zu digitalen Technologien in der Sportindustrie in der IS-Disziplin mittels einer konzeptgetriebenen Literaturrecherche. Auf der Grundlage dieser ersten Ergebnisse wendet Publikation II Data-Mining-Techniken und eine Sentimentanalyse an, um den Einfluss von Social Media auf die Leistungen von Sportlern zu untersuchen. In Publikation III werden state-of-the-art Data-Mining- und Natural-Language-Processing-Techniken angewandt, um die Weisheit einer Online-Community von Sporttippern zu extrahieren. In Publikation IV wird untersucht, wie Sportorganisationen Social Media nutzen können, um das internationale Fan-Engagement zu verbessern. Publikation V zeigt, wie ein webbasiertes Informationstechnologie(IT)-Tool Sportorganisationen bei der automatisierten Analyse und Bearbeitung von Kooperationsanfragen unterstützt.

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Many incumbent firms have set up Digital Innovation Units - dedicated organizational units tasked with exploring and developing new digital services, products, and business models - to cope with new competitors in the market and successfully develop digital innovations. While attention for those Digital Innovation Units is increasing, actual evidence of their performance and success is rare. Addressing this gap, our study investigates factors that hinder or enable performance measurement systems from reducing information asymmetries between members of the Digital Innovation Unit and the representatives of the mother firm. Based on 21 exploratory interviews with both sides, we propose a framework showing three barriers (Exploratory Goal Setting, Outcome Uncertainty and Assessment Misfit) and three enablers (High Autonomy, Transparency & Involvement, Soft Factor Recognition) for the use of Performance Measurement Systems in Digital Innovation Units. Our findings contribute to expanding knowledge on how to measure digital innovation efforts and to assess the performance of Digital Innovation Units. Thus, our framework provides valuable insights into the design of Performance Measurement Systems and serves as a robust foundation to develop new ways of assessing performance in such explorative contexts.

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The disruptive force of digital increasingly challenges firms to develop a competitive advantage through digital transformation. The dynamic capability view addresses the question of how firms cope with changing environments by assigning the source of competitive advantage to a firm’s “potential to systematically solve problems” (Barreto, 2010, p.721). This study combines research from IS and strategic management in order to empirically investigate the role of dynamic capabilities for gaining a competitive advantage through digital transformation. Within the framework of this study, C-level representatives of German utility firms participated in an online survey, showing a significant positive effect of dynamic capabilities and digital maturity on competitive advantage with digital maturity mediating the performance effects of dynamic capabilities. The present study contributes to the body of empirical research on dynamic capabilities and digital transformation emphasizing the important role of dynamic capabilities for turning digital transformation into a competitive advantage.

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Mobile health, or mHealth, solutions offer great potential in the area of self-monitoring of chronic conditions, where most of the day-to-day management of the condition is done at home by the patient or their caregivers. Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep condition caused by an orexin deficiency in the brain resulting in its inability to regulate sleep cycles, causing poor quality sleep during the day and problems with wakefulness during the day. This paper set out to investigate whether Habitual, an app for tracking symptoms, daily habits and medication adherence for people with narcolepsy could increase their sense of empowerment. Ten participants were asked to test the app during a period of 30 days, after which they were asked to answer a survey to investigate whether their perception of their empowerment towards the management of narcolepsy had changed. Although using the app for only 30 days provides a very limited understanding of the impact of Habitual, this study shows positive indication for future mHealth solutions for the management of narcolepsy. Future studies should test the openness to using an app for the management of narcolepsy with a wider cohort.

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In this study, we first derive design principles for mHealth application development for rural parts of developing countries based on scientific literature and field studies. The design principles are then instantiated in a design science project focused on treating non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in rural parts of Kenya. Designing and implementing mobile health (mHealth) applications is a difficult task, and even more so when done in application domains such as rural parts of developing countries or low-resource communities. The resulting mHealth application assists community health workers (CHWs) in the recording of diabetic and hypertensive patients’ vitals measurements. Additionally, in-person disease support communities for the patients and CHWs were formed, enhanced by an SMS-based community messaging feature to assist in increasing health-seeking behavior. The study’s contribution is both the development of a functioning mobile application and collaborative socio-technical support community for patients, as well as the development and instantiation of design principles for designing mHealth applications for rural parts of developing countries.

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Recent developments of novel in-vehicle interventions show the potential to transform the otherwise routine and mundane task of commuting into opportunities to improve the drivers' health and well-being. Prior research has explored the effectiveness of various in-vehicle interventions and has identified moments in which drivers could be interruptible to interventions. All the previous studies, however, were conducted in either simulated or constrained real-world driving scenarios on a pre-determined route. In this paper, we take a step forward and evaluate when drivers interact with in-vehicle interventions in unconstrained free-living conditions. To this end, we conducted a two-month longitudinal study with 10 participants, in which each participant was provided with a study car for their daily driving needs. We delivered two in-vehicle interventions - each aimed at improving affective well-being - and simultaneously recorded the participants' driving behavior. In our analysis, we found that several pre-trip characteristics (like trip length, traffic flow, and vehicle occupancy) and the pre-trip affective state of the participants had significant associations with whether the participants started an intervention or canceled a started intervention. Next, we found that several in-the-moment driving characteristics (like current road type, past average speed, and future brake behavior) showed significant associations with drivers' responsiveness to the intervention. Further, we identified several driving behaviors that "negated" the effectiveness of interventions and highlight the potential of using such "negative" driving characteristics to better inform intervention delivery. Finally, we compared trips with and without intervention and found that both interventions employed in our study did not have a negative effect on driving behavior. Based on our analyses, we provide solid recommendations on how to deliver interventions to maximize responsiveness and effectiveness and minimize the burden on the drivers.

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Open innovation contests that display all submitted ideas to participants are a popular way for firms to generate ideas. In such contest-based ideation, the authors show that seeing numerous competitive ideas of others harms, rather than stimulates, creative performance (Study 1). Others’ competitive prior ideas interfere with idea generation, as new ideas need to be dif�ferentiated from the preceding ones to be original. Exposure to an increasing number of prior ideas thus heightens individuals’ perceived constraints of expressing ideas and harms creative performance (Studies 2 and 3). Furthermore, creative performance monotonically reduces with an increasing number of prior ideas (Study 4). A final study demonstrates that showing only a limited number of ideas as well as grouping prior ideas offer actionable ways to reduce prior ideas’ harmful influence (Study 5). These results illustrate viable ways to improve contest-based ideation outcomes merely by changing how competitive prior ideas are presented.

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In Zeiten der Digitalisierung nimmt Informationstechnologie eine Schlüsselrolle im Modernisierungsprozess von Unternehmen ein. Zugleich bringt die Softwareeinführung das Risiko mit sich, den intendierten Nutzen nicht zu realisieren. Durch eine Dienstleistungssystem-Perspektive erscheint die Einbindung der Nutzer in die Softwareeinführung ein vielversprechender Ansatz. Das Ziel des Projektes ExTEND – Engineering von Dienstleistungssystemen für nutzergenerierte Dienstleistungen ist es daher, Nutzer in die Softwareeinführung nach dem Leitbild „Dienstleistungen von Nutzern für Nutzer“ zu befähigen, aktiv einen Beitrag zu der Gestaltung der Arbeitsumgebung zu leisten. Hieraus resultieren IT-gestützte Servicebausteine, in denen Nutzer sich gegenseitige Hilfestellungen geben und Handlungsalternativen in der Softwareeinführung aufzeigen. Durch ein Pilotierungsvorgehen werden die Servicebausteine in drei Anwendungsfeldern entwickelt und pilotiert. Hieraus resultiert evidenzbasiertes Gestaltungswissen für die Entwicklung von nutzergenerierten Dienstleistungen. Darüber hinaus wird ein Mehrebenenmodell für die Gestaltung von Dienstleistungssystemen vorgestellt, welches die Entwicklung von Dienstleistungssystemen unterstützt und über traditionelle Ansätze des Service Engineerings hinausgeht.

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Smart Personal Assistants (SPAs; such as Amazon’s Alexa or Google’s Assistant) let users interact with computers in a more natural and sophisticated way that was not possible before. Although there exists an increasing amount of research of SPA technology in education, empirical evidence of its ability to offer dynamic scaffolding to enhance students problem-solving skills is still scarce. To fill this gap, the aim of this paper is to find out whether interactions with scaffolding-based SPA technology enable students to internalize and apply problem-solving steps on their own in a 10th grade high school and a vocational business school class. Students in the experiment classes completed their assignments using Smart Personal Assistants, whereas students in the control classes completed the same assignments using traditional methods. This study used a mixed-method approach consisting of two field quasi-experiments and one post-experiment focus group discussion. The empirical results revealed that students in the experiment classes acquired significantly more problem-solving skills than those in the control classes (Study 1: p = 0.0396, study 2: p < 0.001), and also uncovered several changes in students’ learning processes. The findings provide first empirical evidence for the value of using SPA technology on skill development in general, and on problem-solving skill development in particular.

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Argumentation skills are an omnipresent foundation of our daily communication and thinking. However, the learning of argumentation skills is limited due to the lack of individual learning conditions for students. Within this dissertation, I aim to explore the potential of adaptive argumentation skill learning based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) by designing, implementing, and evaluating new technology-enhanced pedagogical concepts to actively support students in developing the ability to argue in a structured, logical, and reflective way. I develop new student-centered pedagogical scenarios with empirically evaluated design principles, linguistic corpora, ML algorithms, and innovative learning tools based on an adaptive writing support system and a pedagogical conversational agent. My results indicate that adaptive learning tools based on ML algorithms and user-centered design patterns help students to develop better argumentation writing skills. Thereby, I contribute to research by bridging the boundaries of argumentation learning and argumentation mining and by examining pedagogical scenarios for adaptive argumentation learning from a user-centered perspective.

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get_appThiemo Wambsganss, Tobias Küng, Söllner Matthias, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Techniques from Natural-Language-Processing offer the opportunities to design new dialog-based forms of human-computer interaction as well as to analyze the argumentation quality of texts. This can be leveraged to provide students with adaptive tutoring when doing a persuasive writing exercise. To test if individual tutoring for students' argumentation will help them to write more convincing texts, we developed ArgueTutor, a conversational agent that tutors students with adaptive argumentation feedback in their learning journey. We compared ArgueTutor with 55 students to a traditional writing tool. We found students using ArgueTutor wrote more convincing texts with a better quality of argumentation compared to the ones using the alternative approach. The measured level of enjoyment and ease of use provides promising results to use our tool in traditional learning settings. Our results indicate that dialog-based learning applications combined with NLP text feedback have a beneficial use to foster better writing skills of students.

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Higher legal standards with regards to data protection of individuals such as the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) increase the pressure on developing lawful technologies. The development requires feedback from stakeholders such as legal experts that lack technical knowledge but are required to understand IT artifacts. As a solution, patterns can support interdisciplinary system development. We demonstrate how interdisciplinary patterns can support legal experts in arguing about technologies in court by introducing a law simulation study which is a well-known evaluation method in law. Our results show that patterns support legal experts in their argumentation about technologies in court. We provide theoretical contributions concerning cognitive fit theory about how patterns act as a bridge between the internal and external representation of problems and improve problem-solving performance related to the legal assessment of technology. In addition, we provide practical guidance for codifying and communicating design knowledge through patterns.

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Due to a rapidly changing business environment, companies feel under constant pressure to innovate. In response to this challenge, and to accelerate their digital innovation endeavours, many incumbent firms set up Digital Innovation Units. To assess the effectiveness of these units, scholars and practitioners have called for the need to develop adequate means of measuring performance. This paper, therefore, reviews the literature on Performance Measurement Systems for Digital Innovation Units, and derives nine requirements. Conducting five case studies of Digital Innovation Units, we investigate the level of adoption of these requirements and propose three additional ones for a Performance Measurement System for innovation activities in Digital Innovation Units. We discuss these requirements and explain the reasons for their different levels of adoption. Thus, we contribute to literature and practice with a more adequate way of evaluating the performance of Digital Innovation Units, valuable to researchers and managers.

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The increasing availability of data and advances in data processing and analysis methods have led to a flourishing of data science and business analytics. This not only constitutes new research efforts in information systems research (e.g. artificial intelligence (AI), processing of unstructured data, decision support systems, or visualization), but also has a significant impact on established topics in information systems research such as business intelligence and decision support systems. In this track, we welcomed the entire diversity of information systems research efforts in the fields of data science and business analytics and were open to all methodological approaches.

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Based on insights from an engineering design project conducted by Airbus and Local Motors, we describe how companies can leverage hybrid working by interlinking external crowds and internal employees, to increase the agility, quality and speed of product development. We identify the benefits and risks of hybrid working and describe the different ways of interlinking external crowds and internal employees. Finally, we provide recommendations for company executives who want to explore the use of hybrid working

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Based on recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI), chatbots are now increasingly offered as an alternative source of customer service. For their uptake user trust in critical. However, little is known about how these interfaces fundamentally influence trust perceptions. In particular, it’s unclear what exactly causes perceptual differences - the change towards a conversational interface or the usage of anthropomorphic design elements. In this study, an online experiment with 160 participants was conducted to examine the differential effects of conversational interaction and anthropomorphism on trust in the interface or the provider within the context of online loan applications. The results show that both treatment conditions affect trust in the interface and the provider by increasing perceptions of social presence. Meanwhile, trust in the interface significantly effects the intention to share information, while trust in the provider has no effect on behavioral intention.

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Today’s fast-growing and ever-changing business environments force software development teams to release high-quality software on a tight schedule. The notion of technical debt (TD) captures the technical compromises wherein software quality is sacrificed for short-term goals. One of the most significant challenges for technical debt management (TDM) is time as a factor of complexity. TD arises from decisions that are favorable in the short term but cause a need for complex and costly actions in the long term. Building on the applications of nudges – the use of small design modifications in choice environments to guide people’s behavior – and on their psychological effects, in this design science research we develop and evaluate design elements of a Technical Debt Management Label (as a TDM nudge) in a technology-driven organization. The TDM label aims to guide software developers’ decisions towards adopting TDM activities that are favorable in the long term.

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Many brands nowadays use direct-to-consumer channels such as proprietary online shops, in order to provide information related to their sustainability and CSR initiatives and to increase consumers’ perceptions of legitimacy of the company and its products. However, so far little is known about the effects of such information on consumer attitudes and behavior. This implies that the true benefit of S/CSR initiatives is currently not well understood by most companies and resource allocation in this area may be distorted. Therefore, in this literature review we consolidate and map existing research that can inform our understanding of this phenomenon. By analyzing a sample of 46 papers we find that research on the topic in a direct-to-consumer context is sparse, but that theories and empirical evidence from related contexts can help us grasp the issue to some extent.

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Wearables provide great opportunities for improving personal health, but research challenges their capacity to evoke behavioral change effectively. Realizing the full potential of wearables requires a better understanding of users’ behavior change processes. Based on self-efficacy theory, we investigate how wearables influence users’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and subsequent health behavior. Using narrative interviews with twenty-five long-term wearable users, we show that wearables can have both positive and negative effects on users’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and that these perceptions are subject to internal and external contexts, which can positively or negatively affect users’ compliance. We also find that the internal context may have a compounding or neutralizing effect on self-efficacy, despite an adverse external context. Our study shows the contextual and transient nature of self-efficacy, thus contributing to self-efficacy theory and research on wearables and offering practical design implications.

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Spurred by the internet of things, industry firms are increasingly establishing platforms that animate an ecosystem of external actors to provide complementary offerings. But why do independent firms decide to join these ecosystems and to become complementors? The goal of this study is to disentangle their motivational factors in the context of the industrial internet of things. A theoretical framework is developed a priori based on the knowledge-based view of the firm and complementary logics. The framework is empirically explored using a case study design. Our results indicate that financial, technology, and knowledge gains positively influence the decision of complementors to join the ecosystem. Yet, our interviews reveal relative differences in motivations based on complementors’ uncertainty. Our findings contribute to the research on joining nascent digital platform eco-systems from a complementor perspective and the growing stream of research on industrial internet of things platforms.

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get_appThiemo Wambsganss, Florian Weber, Matthias Söllner
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Empathy is an elementary skill for daily interactions and for professional communication, agile teamwork and successful leadership and thus elementary for educational curricula. However, educational organizations face difficulties in providing the boundary conditions necessary for their students to develop empathy skills due to the lack of individual support in traditional large-scale and growing distance-learning scenarios. Drawing on cognitive dissonance theory, we propose an adaptive empathy learning tool that helps students develop their ability to react to other people’s observed experiences through individual feedback in large-scale or distance learning scenarios. Based on a design science research project, we propose a set of design principles and instantiate and evaluate them with our prototype Eva in an online experiment with 65 students. The findings suggest that an adaptive empathy learning tool that follows our design principles is a promising approach to individually support students in their ability to react to other people’s observed abilities in traditional learning scenarios.

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Cognitive automation moves beyond rule-based automation and thus imposes novel challenges on organizations when assessing the automation potential of use cases. Thus, we present an empirically grounded and conceptually operationalized model for assessing cognitive automation use cases, which consists of four assessment dimensions: data, cognition, relationship, and transparency requirements. We apply the model in a real-world organizational context in the course of an action research project at the customer service department of ManuFact AG, and present unique empirical insights as well as the impact the application of the model had on the organization. The model shall help practitioners to make more informed decisions on selecting use cases for cognitive automation and to plan respective endeavors. For research, the identified factors affecting the suitability of a use case for cognitive automation shall deepen our understanding of cognitive automation in particular, and AI as the driving force behind cognitive automation in general.

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Business ecosystems are dynamic structures of various actors who co-create value. By combining complementary and substitute services, these actors create integrated offerings. This paper proposes a conceptual model which supports the analysis of ecosystems by de- composing the offering into distinct modules. Each mod- ule represents a beneficiary-provider duality with a specific value proposition and activities to be performed. It further describes, how different service modules con- tribute and may change the network-level purpose. The research follows design science and was facilitated in a consortium setup to integrate practitioners’ insights. The paper contributes by developing design principles for a service configuration model, identifying relevant activities to describe service creation, providing a logic to configure distinct services into a whole, and introducing the concept of substitutes into the discussion.

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In the context of digital transformation, it is mandatory for most organizations to conduct information systems development (ISD) projects as part of their digitalization and business development journey. One reason that many ISD projects fail is lack of knowledge about which ISD method (ISDM) is most suitable for the project at hand and how to adapt it to reflect the respective business development context. These problems especially occur in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), as they often lack specific methodological skills and project governance experience – so they cannot even manage ISD consultancies that promise to support them in their digital transformation. In this conceptual paper, we present the design of a method for selecting and using ISDM for SMEs. It considers both the context dependency and missing project governance skills of SMEs. The main components of the proposed method link the knowledge areas of business development and ISD: business context evaluation, ISDM selection and ISDM management.

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%X Higher legal standards regarding the data protection of individuals, such as the European General Data Protection Regulation, increase the pressure on developing lawful systems. In the development of technologies, not only developers are involved. It also requires knowledge from other stakeholders, such as legal experts, that lack technical knowledge but are required to understand IT artifacts. We see two strings that can benefit from the use of design patterns: first, the well-known use of design patterns to support developers in case of recurring problems. Second, we see potential that legal experts, who have to interact with and understand complicated, novel technologies, benefit from the same patterns. We conduct a revelatory case study using design patterns to develop and assess a smart learning assistant. We scaffolded the case interpretation through the human-centered view of socio-materiality and provide contributions concerning the use of design patterns in the development and assessment of lawful technologies.

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get_appSeverin Landolt, Thiemo Wambsganss, Matthias Söllner
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Despite a large number of available techniques around Deep Learning in Natural Language Processing (NLP), no holistic framework exists which supports researchers and practitioners to organise knowledge when designing, comparing and evaluating NLP applications. This paper addresses this lack of a holistic framework by developing a taxonomy for Deep Learning in Natural Language Processing. Based on a systematic literature review as proposed by Webster and Watson [1] and vom Brocke et al. [2] and the iterative taxonomy development process of Nickerson et al. [3] we derived five novel dimensions and 38 characteristics based on a sample of 205 papers. Our research suggests, that a Deep Learning NLP approach can be distinguished by five dimensions which were partly derived from the CRISP-DM methodology: application understanding, data preparation, modeling, learning technique and evaluation. We, therefore, hope to provide guidance and support for researchers and practitioners when using Deep Learning for NLP to design, compare and evaluate NLP applications.

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Digital platforms (DPs) – technical core artifacts augmented by peripheral third-party complementary resources – facilitate the interaction and collaboration of different actors through highly-efficient resource matching. As DPs differ significantly in their configurations and applications, it is important from both a descriptive and a design perspective to define classes of DPs. As an intentionally designed artifact, every classification pursues a certain purpose. In this research, the purpose is to classify DPs from a business model perspective, i.e. to identify DP clusters that each share a similar business model type. We follow Nickerson et al.’s (2013) method for taxonomy development. By validating the conceptually derived design dimensions with ten DP cases, we identify platform structure and platform participants as the major clustering constituent characteristics. Building on the proposed taxonomy, we derive four DP archetypes that follow distinct design configurations, namely business innovation platforms, consumer innovation platforms, business exchange platforms and consumer exchange platforms.

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The success of innovative teaching/learning approaches aiming to foster problem solving in management education depends on useful and easy-to-use IT components in the learning process. However, the complexity of problem solving in self-regulated learning approaches may overwhelm the learner and can lead to unsatisfying learning outcomes. Research suggests the implementation of technology-enhanced scaffolds as a mechanism to guide the learners in their individual problem-solving process to enhance their learning outcomes. We present a theoretical model based on adaptive structuration theory and cognitive load theory that explains how technology-enhanced scaffolding contributes to learning outcomes. We test the model with a fully randomized between-subject experiment in a flipped classroom for management education focusing on individual problem solving. Our results show that technology-enhanced scaffolding contributes significantly to the management of cognitive load as well as to learning process satisfaction and problem-solving learning outcomes. Thereby, our paper provides new conceptual and empirically tested insights for a better understanding of technology-enhanced scaffolds and their design to assist problem solving and its respective effects in flipped classrooms for management education.

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get_appErnestine Dickhaut, Nadine Miedzianowski, Silke Jandt, Andreas Janson, Robin Knote, Jan Marco Leimeister, Alexander Roßnagel, Matthias Söllner, Laura Friederike Thies
Buch
Im Rahmen des DFG-geförderten Projekts AnEkA „Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster zur rechtsverträglichen und qualitätszentrierten Gestaltung kontextsensitiver Applikationen“ wurden Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster für die Gestaltung rechtsverträglicher, aber gleichermaßen qualitätszentrierter smarter persönlicher Assistenten erstellt. Neben einem umfangreichen Musterkatalog hat das Projektteam ein Vorgehen für die Erstellung von Entwurfsmustern erarbeitet. Die Handlungsbroschüre soll zunächst eine Einführung in die Thematik der rechtsverträglichen und qualitätszentrierten Entwicklung geben und das Potential des Einsatzes von Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmustern aufzeigen. Darauf aufbauend werden das methodische Vorgehen, wie Muster zu erstellen sind, sowie die im Projekt erstellten Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster anhand von einigen Beispielen inhaltlich vorgestellt. Abschließend werden Handlungsempfehlungen für die Erstellung und den Einsatz von Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmustern gegeben. Im Anhang werden alle im Forschungsprojekt AnEkA erarbeiteten Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster zur weiteren Nutzung zur Verfügung gestellt.

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Companies show a growing demand in corporate agility. The effects of so-called doing and being agile are the key for positive outcomes in agile work. Scrum is used by companies to make them more agile. The present study examines the interaction of doing agile (leadership, work design) and being agile (individual characteristics, empowerment) in relation to satisfaction and commitment based on an online survey of 129 Scrum development team members. The results show that work design and leadership impact empowerment and that the latter leads to both job satisfaction and commitment. Team orientation has no effect. Openness for new actions moderates the relationship between work design and the outcome variables. The results can be used in practice to increase the satisfaction and commitment within Scrum. They provide an insight into the impact structure within Scrum and are thus also the basis for future research.

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Recent advances in Natural Language Processing not only bear the opportunity to design new dialog-based forms of human-computer interaction but also to analyze the argumentation quality of texts. Both can be leveraged to provide students with individual and adaptive tutoring in their personal learning journey to develop argumentation skills. Therefore, we present the results of our design science research project on how to design an adaptive dialog-based tutoring system to help students to learn how to argue. Our results indicate the usefulness of an adaptive dialog-based tutoring system to support students individually, independent of a human instructor, time and place. In addition to providing our embedded software artifact, we document our evaluated design knowledge as a design theory. Thus, we provide the first step toward a nascent design theory for adaptive conversational tutoring systems to individual support metacognition skill education of students in traditional learning scenarios.

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get_appMichael Marcin Kunz, Ulrich Bretschneider, Jan Marco Leimeister
Buchkapitel
Crowdfunding unterstützt neue Start-ups dabei, den Finanzierungsbedarf der ersten Unternehmensphase zu überwinden. Dieser Bedarf wird über die Unterstützung einer Vielzahl an Geldgebern mit kleinen Geldbeträgen realisiert. Das Ziel dieses Beitrages ist, den aktuellen Stand der Erfolgsfaktorenforschung im reward-based Crowdfunding zu reflektieren und auf Basis einer qualitativen Expertenbefragung um noch nicht betrachtete Aspekte zu erweitern. Durch dieses Vorgehen erhalten Projektinitiatoren einen Katalog an die Hand, der ihnen dabei hilft die Erfolgschancen eigener Kampagnen zu steigern.

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As more and more organizations are reaching the limits of their internal innovation performance, they are increasingly forced to seek external innovation opportunities through inter-organizational collaboration forms, such as creative projects. These collaborations require both efficient and effective forms of communication since a common understanding is required for success. Differences in knowledge backgrounds hinder the collaboration of multiple stakeholder groups by making knowledge integration difficult, especially when they collaborate for the first time. Boundary objects are attributed a mediating capability. While design artifacts are often used to facilitate communication, their value in promoting multi-stakeholder collaboration is not yet fully understood. Addressing the gap, we analyze when artifacts turn into boundary objects and how they promote interaction between stakeholder groups. Building on the results of an in-depth case-study, we illustrate the insights that boundary objects provide for stakeholder integration. After discussing these insights, we outline directions for future research and practice.

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The use of persuasive technologies to improve users’ personal health outcomes are becoming increasingly pervasive in the health context. While early research on persuasive technologies highlighted the technology’s individual and societal potential, recent empirical evidence has hinted about the adverse effects of their use. However, little is known about the causes of, experiences with, and coping reactions to these adverse effects. To fill this gap, we conduct an exploratory study of wearable technologies’ adverse effects on users based on twenty-five narrative interviews. Employing a technostress lens, we find two distinct patterns–control stress and validation stress–that show that users experience these adverse effects by revolving through a circular process of technostress and relying on various mechanisms to cope with it. We describe contributions to the literature and implications for research and practice.

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«Lost Generation» ist ein Begriff, den die amerikanische Schriftstellerin Gertrude Stein vor mehr als 100 Jahren prägte. Sie verwendete ihn für alle Kriegsbeteiligten des Ersten Weltkrieges, die sich nach Kriegsende respektlos verhielten und zu viel Alkohol konsumierten. Der Erste Weltkriege hatte ihnen ihre Zukunft gestohlen. In diesem Beitrag verwende ich den Begriff «Lost Generation» in Anlehnung an seine traditionelle Verwendung für eine Generation, die durch ein unbeeinflussbares heftiges Erlebnis, beispielsweise einen Krieg, eine Naturkatastrophe oder vielleicht auch eine Pandemie, in eine neue Lebenssituation gestellt wird, auf die sie nicht vorbereitet ist und die sie auch nicht will. Wenn auch die Pandemie, die derzeit Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Atem hält, nicht mit der Brutalität und den Gräueltaten des Ersten Weltkrieges vergleichbar ist, stellt sich für mich doch die Frage, wie stark die teilweise notwendigen harten Massnahmen des Jahres 2020, wie beispielsweise der Lockdown und die grossen Einschränkungen und Veränderungen im Privat- und Berufsleben nachhaltige Einflüsse auf die Zukunft junger Menschen haben, deren Pläne für die Zukunft komplett durcheinander gebracht und in vielen Fällen zumindest für die nahe Zukunft zerstört wurden.

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Design Thinking as an approach for wicked problem solving and the development of innovative ideas is spreading in organizations throughout the world. What is it about, how does it work, and what are the potential benefits of applying Design Thinking? Showcasing VISENSE, an industrial error monitoring start-up that emerged out of applying Design Thinking in an innovation project with the BMW Group can help you to understand how you can leverage the methodology for your company.

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Design Thinking (DT) has gained attention as a problem-solving method that drives innovation. However, the implementation and application of DT in firms seems challenging. While we know that especially non-designers have problems in adopting DT, we don't know why. Addressing this gap, this study investigates the learning experience of non-designers when Design Thinking (DT) is introduced into a firm. Relying on five projects in which 17 participants took place, Q-Methodology was applied, resulting in three learning profiles of the Empathic Collaborator, the Enthusiastic Missionary and the Focused Expert. Using an experiential learning lens, these profiles are described and explained. Our findings reveal the necessity to consider such learning types to increase the effectiveness of DT. In terms of theory, we found limited capability of existing frameworks to explain our findings, which call for theory that also considers personals traits and contextual factors when implementing DT.

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In August 2011 the Wall Street Journal published an essay by Netscape co-founder Marc Andreessen titled “Why software is eating the world”. He argues that “more and more major businesses and industries are being run on software and delivered as online services—from movies to agriculture to national defense. Many of the winners are Silicon Valley-style entrepreneurial technology companies that are invading and overturning established industry structures. … Companies in every industry need to assume that a software revolution is coming.” (Andreessen 2011). By pointing at examples in various industries from automotive and banking to defense, healthcare, music, retailing, and telecommunications, he illustrates the transformational power of information technology (IT) and software in particular. The discussion is not new and dates back to the early 2000s. For example, Power and Jerjian (2001, p. 99) mention for Heathrow airport that “software is the thing that runs the airport” and in a biological analogy they consider software to be the nervous system. Meanwhile, the large “big tech” software companies (e.g., GAFAM, BATX) have impressively confirmed this development: their digital platforms have spread over many industries with an impact on processes (e.g., interaction and transaction), on products (e.g., app stores and services) as well as on business models (e.g., streaming and as-a-service models). The recent tech-portmanteaus (e.g., Fintech, Insurtech, Regtech) also reflect the attitude of these startup businesses, which perceive themselves rather as IT (tech) companies than as representatives of the industry they are aiming to transform (Meijer and Kapoor 2014). In the same vein, the high valuation of Tesla Motors since early 2020 spurred an intense debate of whether the company is in the automotive or the tech business (e.g., Klebnikov 2020). Obviously, these developments have numerous implications for the field of IT management, which were discussed during a panel at the 82nd Annual German Business Researcher Conference on March 18, 2020. The panel builds on prior discussions regarding the impact of digitalization on IT management. For example, a BISE discussion section in 2017 addressed the implications of the broad trend of digitalization for the field of Business Information Systems Engineering and pointed out new topics, such as digital innovation and transformation, which complement existing competencies (e.g., in modeling and managing enterprise IT). The discussion revealed strong arguments for the strategic role of IT and that business and IT departments as well as academia and practice need to collaborate more closely (Legner et al. 2017). While these statements adopted a rather broad perspective, another discussion section focused on “the impact of digitalization on the IT department” (Urbach et al. 2019). It mentioned important and intricate challenges: On the one hand, IT departments need to move closer to the business units and, on the other hand, they need to constantly update their technological skills in an environment with a high pace of technological innovation. In a world “eaten by software” these developments are equally prevalent and lead to the question how businesses address these challenges, in particular, how they assess the dominant role of software, how activities in managing the software lifecycle should be organized, and what the implications are for the BISE community.

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