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Prof. Dr. Sofia Schöbel

Assoziierte Mitarbeiterin
Universität Osnabrück
Katharinenstrasse 3
32767 Osnabrück
+41 71 224 3800


  • Gamification – Entwicklung und Erforschung von spielbasierten Mechanismen und Konzepten zur Steigerung der Motivation und des Engagements von Nutzern.
  • Digitales Lernen – Entwicklung von online Lernmaterialien sowie Erprobung und Etablierung von Lernanwendungen hinsichtlich der Gestaltung, Nützlichkeit und Anwendbarkeit unter anderem unter der Berücksichtigung von Kompetenzprofilen von Nutzern.
  • Business Analytics – Etablierung von Konzepten rund um das Datenbankmanagement, Big Data, Text Mining sowie der Prozess der Datensammlung, Datenanalyse, Datenvisualisierung und Auswertung mittels Regressionen.
  • Interaktion und Gestaltung von smarten persönlichen Assistenten – Gestaltung und Analyse der Interaktion zwischen Nutzern und smarten persönlichen Assistenten unter anderem in Anwendungsfall von Subscription Geschäftsmodellen.
  • Collaboration Engineering – Entwicklung und Erprobung von Mechanismen und Konzepten zur effektiven Zusammenarbeit von Teams und Gruppen sowie Entwicklung und Erforschung von Konzepten zur Steigerung der Motivation von Gruppenmitgliedern bei der Teamarbeit.
  • Weitere Forschungsgebiete

  • Nutzerzentrierte Informationssystemgestaltung – Analyse und Identifikation von Nutzergruppen zur individuellen und konfigurativen Gestaltung von Informationssystemen.
  • Publikationen

    Online training to improve problem-solving skills has become increasingly important in management learning. In online environments, learners take a more active role which can lead to stressful situations and decreased motivation. Gamification can be applied to support learner motivation and emotionally boost engagement by using game-like elements in a non-game context. However, using gamification does not necessarily result in supporting positive learning outcomes. Our analysis sheds light on these aspects and evaluates the effects of points and badges on engagement and problem-solving outcomes. We used an experimental approach with a fully randomized pre-test/post-test design of a gamified online management training program with 68 participants. The results demonstrate that points and badges do not directly improve problem-solving skills but are mediated by emotional engagement to positively influence problem-solving skills. Additionally, satisfaction with the gamification learning process positively relates to emotional engagement. Thus, when creating online training programs, it is essential to consider how to engage students and to think about the design of the learning environment. By identifying the limitations of gamification elements, the study’s results can provide educators with information about the design implications of online training programs for management learning.

    Driven by circumstances like the global pandemic many learners and educators realize the importance and value of self-regulated digital learning. To better support self-regulated learning, conversational agents have become more relevant. Conversational agents can act as tutor or as learning mate for learners. Although conversational agents have potential to better support self-regulated learning processes, challenges exist requiring implications about how to make these interactions more engaging and supportive. This study discusses the value of gamified conversational learning chatbots that use game elements to engage learners to guide researchers and practitioners to design conversational agents that effectively motivate learners and provide self-regulated learning at the same time. Therefore, we propose a systematically developed framework for gamifying educational conversational agents and contribute to theory by consolidating several theories about games, digital learning, and conversational agents and support practitioners by providing implications about what to care about when gamifying conversational agents

    Today’s servitized and digitalized society has significant implications for the economic system as value creation increasingly shifts towards digital services. Organizations are increasingly relying of artificial intelligence, which enables them to operate with novel technological artifacts like conversational agents (CA). These human-like AI-driven artifacts open new possibilities and channels for service providers to scale up their business even further and to create a business value or even to make processes more efficient. While we witness the results of that each day, we do not fully understand how such CAs can contribute to scaling up a business. Therefore, we conduct an analysis of service research and popular CAs to determine the status quo and highlight opportunities for scaling services with CAs. We contribute to theory by clarifying the meaning of scalability in combination with CAs and support practitioners by providing an overview about how organizations successfully scale their CAs.

    Since the emergence of conversational agents, this technology has seen continuous development and research. Today, advanced conversational agents are virtually omnipresent in our everyday lives. Albeit the numerous improvements in their conversational capabilities, breakdowns are still a persistent issue. Such breakdowns can result in a very unpleasant experience for users and impair the future success of conversational agents. This issue has been acknowledged by many researchers recently. However, the research on strategies to overcome conversational breakdowns is still inconclusive, and further research is needed. Therefore, we conduct a systematic literature analysis to derive conceptual conversational breakdown recovery strategies from literature and highlight future research avenues to address potential gaps. Thus, we contribute to theory of human-agent interaction by deriving and assessing recovery strategies and suggesting leads for novel recovery strategies.

    Digitales Lernen ist ein zentraler Bestandteil der heutigen Bildungslandschaft geworden. Insbesondere Lernvideos haben in den letzten Jahren deutlich an Popularität gewonnen und Plattformen wie YouTube sind heute ein fester Bestandteil von Lernprozessen. Bildungseinrichtungen haben diese Entwicklung erkannt und Lernvideos in ihre Lernsysteme integriert. Allerdings sind die heutigen Lernvideos oft nicht sehr ansprechend, weil es an Gestaltungswissen mangelt, wie Interaktionen und gamifizierte Elemente die Motivation und den Lernerfolg steigern können. Dieser Mangel an Gestaltungswissen führt zu minderwertigen Lernvideos, die den Lernprozess der Lernenden meist nicht in dem Maße unterstützen, wie sie es könnten. Um effektive Lernvideos zu entwickeln, welche die Lernenden adäquat unterstützen, ist handfestes und praktisches Gestaltungswissen für die Lehrenden notwendig. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickeln wir Entwurfsmuster für interaktive gamifizierte Lernvideos, um Praktiker*innen bei der Erstellung effektiver Lernvideos anzuleiten, die die Motivation und das Engagement von Lernenden zu fördern, welche sie aktiv in ihrem Lernprozess unterstützen zu können. Wir setzen damit zusätzlich die Grundlage für zukünftige Forschung zur Gestaltung effektiver Lernvideos. Dabei folgen wir einem gestaltungsorientierten Forschungsansatz, um die Entwicklung unserer Entwurfsmuster zu systematisieren.

    Persuasive designs, including gamification and digital nudging, have become well renowned during the last years and have been implemented successfully across different sectors including education, e-health, e-governance, e-finance and general information systems. In this regard, persuasive design can support desirable changes in attitude and behavior of users in order to achieve their own goals. However, such persuasive influence on individuals raises ethical questions as persuasive designs can impair the autonomy of users or persuade the user towards goals of a third party and hence lead to unethical decision-making processes. In human-computer interaction this is especially significant with the advent of advanced artificial intelligence that can emulate human behavior and thus bring new dynamics into play. Therefore, we conduct a systematic literature analysis with the goal to compile an overview of ethical considerations for persuasive system design, derive potential guidelines for ethical persuasive designs and shed light on potential research gaps.

    Digital nudging is a promising approach from behavioral economics. In deci-sions where individuals tend to struggle, nudges can support users of digital systems by aligning their behavior with their preferences. Despite their wide use, most digital nudges are designed to support the intended behavior from the perspective of a company while neglecting potential legal, ethical, or individual constraints or preferences. With modern technologies such as artificial intelli-gence or big data, these issues multiply and with the increasing effectiveness of digital nudges and use of new technologies, this has become even more critical. Thus, in this paper we follow a Design Science Research approach to develop a process model for the systematic development of legitimate nudges (DELEN). Legitimacy requires that dealings between different entities shall be fair. Unlike other models, we set normative boundaries derived from literature, expert in-terviews, and target group segmentation as integral elements. Target group seg-mentation increases nudge effectiveness and avoids unnecessary burdens for other individuals. By doing so, the DELEN process model paves the way for legitimate and effective digital nudges.

    Driven by technological advances, smart personal assistants (SPA) have gained importance in human-computer interaction. SPAs can influence user behavior and persuade them towards an outcome. However, users often lack motivated to interact with SPAs. One way to support this interaction is persuasive system design; considering concepts as gamification and/or digital nudging. Although SPA research has increased recently, there is still no shared knowledge about persuasive designs. Therefore, we aim to identify the current state-of-the-art for persuasive SPA design to understand how interactions and designs can be improved referring to persuasive system design. Thus, we conduct a systematic literature analysis to represent how gamification and digital nudging are used to design SPAs and conclude if and how those concepts can support SPA interactions. Consequently, we contribute to theory, providing better understanding about SPA interaction and design making SPAs more engaging and entertaining. Practitioners can use this contribution for persuasive SPA designs.

    Die Digitalisierung verändert nicht nur unser privates, sondern auch unser Arbeitsleben. Immer mehr Daten über Individuen sind online verfügbar und werden für die Nutzung von bestimmten Online Services vorausgesetzt. Hierbei verlieren die Nutzenden oft den Überblick, wie und welche Daten sie von sich preisgeben. Dies birgt nicht nur das Risiko der Preisgabe von privaten Daten, sondern auch unternehmensseitig das Risiko, dass wichtige Daten außerhalb des Unternehmens veröffentlicht werden. Hier kann das Konzept des digitalen Nudgings angewandt werden, welches nunmehr auch als edukatives Privacy Nudging genutzt werden kann. Das Konzept bezweckt, Individuen durch bestimmte Elemente wie beispielsweise Defaults zu Verhaltensänderungen anzuregen. Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, einen Überblick darüber zu geben, welche Privacy Nudges es im edukativen Bereich gibt und wie diese mit verschiedenen Lerntheorien in Einklang gebracht werden können. Der Text soll Forschern und Praktikern eine Orientierung geben, selbst edukative Privacy Nudges zu gestalten und endet mit einem Fallbeispiel, das aufzeigt wie einfache Gestaltungsänderungen Individuen dazu anregen können, sich privatheitsfreundlicher zu verhalten und sorgsamer mit ihren privaten Daten umzugehen.

    In recent years, using game concepts for educational purposes in digital environments has become continually more popular and relevant. Games can be used to motivate and engage users in regular system use and, in the end, support learners in achieving better learning outcomes. In this context, different kinds of game concepts exist, such as gamification or serious games, each with a different perspective and usefulness in digital learning environments. Because developing and using with game concepts in digital learning environments has recently become more important, and developing them is still not fully established, questions arise about future research directions involving games in digital learning. Therefore, this study aims to identify the state of the field and determine what is relevant when using game concepts in digital learning. To achieve this goal, we present the results of a bibliometric analysis considering more than 10,000 articles between 2000 and 2019 and summarize them to develop a research agenda. This agenda supports researchers and practitioners in identifying avenues for future research. We contribute to theory by providing a detailed understanding of the relevance of game concepts in digital learning. We propose a research agenda to assist researchers in planning future approaches with and about gamification concepts in digital learning. Practical implications are proposed by demonstrating what should be considered when using game concepts in learning environments.



    Methodische Expertise

    Qualitative Expertise – Durchführung und Auswertung von Interviewstudien, Fokusgruppen, Delphi Studien sowie Workshops

    Quantitative Expertise – Durchführung von Online Experimenten sowie Umfragen sowie Evaluation von quantitativen Daten in Form von Regressionsanalysen, Faktorenanalysen, Strukturgleichungsmodellen, Konfigurationsanalysen (QCA), Präferenzanalysen (Best-Worst-Scaling, Conjoint & Cluster Analyse)

    Tools: SmartPLS, R, SPSS, FsQCA, MaxQDA