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Ernestine Dickhaut

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+41 71 224 3800

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Design science projects are of great interest in information systems (IS) research. Typically, design-oriented projects generate valuable design knowledge through the design and possible instantiation of artifacts. Although designing novel artifacts and accumulating design knowledge is common practice in IS, there is still limited shared knowledge about the distinctive characteristics of design knowledge to facilitate its accumulation. To address this issue, we develop a design knowledge taxonomy and contribute to a deeper understanding of design knowledge properties. The taxonomy is grounded on a systematic literature review, followed by a combination of empirical-to-conceptual and conceptual-to-empirical iterations. We evaluate the taxonomy by interviewing six domain experts and demonstrate its practical application and utility. Thus, the taxonomy consists of key dimensions and characteristics of design knowledge and contributes to a better scientific understanding of its characteristics. Practitioners can use the taxonomy as an instrument to further understand, design, and accumulate design knowledge.

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To ensure that an intended target group accepts and uses an information system (IS) is a major challenge for service systems engineering and a key interest in IS research. On the one hand, individuals’ cultural values affect their willingness to use an IS; on the other hand, information technology (IT) is neither value-neutral and, thus, also affects IT acceptance and usage. Therefore, the adaptation of IS should consider both sources of value. Thus, in this paper, we present the theory-driven design of a method for culture-sensitive IS adaptation that draws on IT-culture conflict theory. Our two-fold evaluation approach results show that the method enables to create feasible results for developing culture-sensitive design solutions for IS. As a theoretical contribution, we contribute to the exploration of culture in IS development; as a practical contribution, we provide guidance in how to adapt IS for specific target groups.

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Design Thinking has become a well-established approach to solving wicked problems through creative and conceptual solutions. Thus, Design Thinking approaches usually end with finding novel solutions but do not offer support in the practical implementation of these solutions. To bridge the gap between finding creative solutions and implementing them into suitable end products, we see Design Patterns as a useful approach to combine the advantages of both sides—the human-centered Design Thinking approach and the practical implementation in system development. Design Patterns offer proven solutions to recurring problems and thus provide design knowledge to solve complex design problems. In this contribution, we demonstrate how Design Patterns act as a complement to Design Thinking by using the example of designing a lawful smart personal learning assistant. We use Design Thinking to extract the design solution of the lawful learning assistant and develop it with the help of Design Patterns. We demonstrate the use of Design Patterns by using the deletion routine Design Pattern as an example of how a Design Pattern can be used for lawful design in addition to their known fields of application in system development. The evaluation results show that the combination of Design Thinking and Design Patterns lead to an approach that not only identifies novel, complex solutions but also supports their practical implementation.

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The goal of design science research is the generation of novel artifacts. Thereby DSR projects generate valuable design knowledge, thus, underscoring the importance to codify of design knowledge for achieving scientific progress. The research community observes that DSR projects generate a large amount of design knowledge, but the developed knowledge often ends as a single success story. To counter this situation, we analyze the variety of design knowledge representation forms that have been published in the AIS Senior Scholars’ Basket in design science research papers. Based on our systematic literature review, we identify prevalent ways of design knowledge representations. We provide as a central contribution how to effectively communicate design knowledge through the derivation of recommendations that provides practical guidance to support researchers and practitioners in making design knowledge contributions reusable and applicable.

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Novel technologies such as smart personal assistants integrate digital services into everyday life. These services use personal data to offer personalized services. While they are subject to special data protection regulations at the time of development, there are few guidelines describing the transition from legal requirements to implementation. To reduce risks, services depend on external legal assessments. With developers and legal experts often missing either legal or technical knowledge, the challenge lies in bridging this gap. We observe that design patterns support both developers and legal experts, and we present an approach in which design patterns are leveraged to provide twofold value for both developers and legal experts when dealing with novel technologies. We conducted a revelatory case study for smart personal assistants and scaffolded the case interpretation through cognitive fit theory. On the basis of the findings, we develop a theoretical model to explain and predict the twofold value of design patterns to develop and assess lawful technologies.

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Digitales Lernen ist ein zentraler Bestandteil der heutigen Bildungslandschaft geworden. Insbesondere Lernvideos haben in den letzten Jahren deutlich an Popularität gewonnen und Plattformen wie YouTube sind heute ein fester Bestandteil von Lernprozessen. Bildungseinrichtungen haben diese Entwicklung erkannt und Lernvideos in ihre Lernsysteme integriert. Allerdings sind die heutigen Lernvideos oft nicht sehr ansprechend, weil es an Gestaltungswissen mangelt, wie Interaktionen und gamifizierte Elemente die Motivation und den Lernerfolg steigern können. Dieser Mangel an Gestaltungswissen führt zu minderwertigen Lernvideos, die den Lernprozess der Lernenden meist nicht in dem Maße unterstützen, wie sie es könnten. Um effektive Lernvideos zu entwickeln, welche die Lernenden adäquat unterstützen, ist handfestes und praktisches Gestaltungswissen für die Lehrenden notwendig. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickeln wir Entwurfsmuster für interaktive gamifizierte Lernvideos, um Praktiker*innen bei der Erstellung effektiver Lernvideos anzuleiten, die die Motivation und das Engagement von Lernenden zu fördern, welche sie aktiv in ihrem Lernprozess unterstützen zu können. Wir setzen damit zusätzlich die Grundlage für zukünftige Forschung zur Gestaltung effektiver Lernvideos. Dabei folgen wir einem gestaltungsorientierten Forschungsansatz, um die Entwicklung unserer Entwurfsmuster zu systematisieren.

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Designing novel technologies provide challenges to developers. To support developers in designing these technologies, design knowledge must be codified and made applicable for the future. In systems development, design patterns provide proven solutions to solving recurring problems. They contain templates for describing design information, often in tabular form, and are established tools for making complex knowledge accessible and applicable. Design patterns play a critical role in both practice and research in finding potential solutions. For researchers, patterns can provide a method for codifying design knowledge for future research. For practitioners, design patterns provide established solutions to recurring problems. By applying them in a particular context, the pattern represents elements of both the problem-space and the solution-space, providing an opportunity to bridge the gap between the two spaces. Due to the abstraction of design patterns, they can be used for different application scenarios. The preparation of the design knowledge in the design pattern is a critical step to support the user in the best possible way, that determines the usefulness of the pattern.

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Die Covid-19 Pandemie hat zu enormen Veränderungen im Arbeitsalltag geführt. Videokonferenztools gewannen durch die Zusammenarbeit über Distanz an Bedeutung. In kürzester Zeit kamen in vielen Unternehmen Videokonferenztools verschiedener Hersteller zum Einsatz; der Datenschutz stand dabei in der Regel nicht an erster Stelle und es kam zu zahlreichen Datenschutzverstößen. Im Laufe der Pandemie rückte der Datenschutz mehr in den Fokus und es wurde nachgebessert. Wir wollen mit unserem Beitrag anregen Videokonferenztools nicht nur datenschutzkonform, sondern rechtsverträglich zu gestalten. Daher haben wir die Benutzeroberfläche eines Tools (Zoom) an den Stellen angepasst, an denen datenschutzsensibles Verhalten besonders kritisch ist. Wir zeigen, wie kleine Änderungen in der Benutzeroberfläche und die Integration von Privacy Nudges zu datenschutzsensiblem Verhalten führen können. Um diese sogenannten Privacy Nudges für Entwickelnde von Videokonferenztools so praktisch und zugänglich wie möglich zu machen, greifen wir auf das Konzept der Design Pattern aus der Systementwicklung zurück.

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Higher legal standards with regards to the data protection of individu-als such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) are increasing the pressure on developers of IT artifacts. Typically, when developing systems, we subsequently evaluate them with users to elaborate aspects such as user experi-ence perceptions. However, nowadays, other evaluation aspects such as legality and data policy issues are also important criteria for system development. For this purpose, we introduce LEGIT (legal design science evaluation), which pro-vides developers with guidance when considering legal requirements. We use the case of the GDPR to illustrate the feasibility, applicability, and benefit to the de-velopment process. With this novel method adapted from law research, we are able to derive actionable guidance for developers to evaluate developer efforts in increasing legal compatibility. To illustrate our methodological approach, in this paper, we describe the key steps of the method with respect to the evaluation of a learning assistant. We develop an AI-based learning assistant for university stu-dents to demonstrate the application of the novel evaluation method. We briefly discuss how this procedure can serve as the foundation for a new evaluation method of legally compatible systems in design science research.

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In der Entwicklung informationstechnischer Systeme entstehen oft Zielkonflikte, die durch Gestaltung der Systeme aufgelöst werden müssen. Hierfür fehlt es Entwicklern, insbesondere bei Konflikten zwischen Rechtsverträglichkeit und Dienstleistungsqualität, oft an dem notwendigen Wissen und der erforderlichen Gestaltungserfahrung. Hier können Entwurfsmuster weiterhelfen. Der Beitrag stellt am Beispiel Smarter Persönlicher Assistenten einen Ansatz vor, in dem Entwurfsmuster interdisziplinäres Gestaltungswissen zusammenführen, geht auf die Besonderheiten des Gestaltungswissens der beiden Disziplinen ein und stellt ein beispielhaftes Entwurfsmuster vor.

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