Search
Generic filters
Exact matches only
Filter by content type
Users
Attachments

Publikations-Übersicht

get_appClaude Draude, Christian Gruhl, Gerrit Hornung, Jonathan Kropf, Jörn Lamla, Jan Marco Leimeister, Bernhard Sick, Gerd Stumme
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Social Machines sind ein Paradigma für die Gestaltung soziotechnischer Systeme, die unter Verwendung von Web- und Plattformlösungen das Potenzial digitaler Technologien mit der Eigenlogik sozialer Interaktion, Organisation und Strukturbildung auf neue Weise zusammenführen. Im Folgenden diskutieren wir das Paradigma der Social Machine aus den Perspektiven der Informatik, der Wirtschaftsinformatik, der Soziologie und des Rechts, um Orientierungspunkte für seine Gestaltung zu identifizieren. Der Begriff ist in der Literatur jedoch bisher nicht abschließend definiert sondern nur durch Beispiele illustriert. In diesem Artikel stellen wir zunächst die folgende Definition zur Diskussion: Social Machines sind soziotechnische Systeme, in denen die Prozesse sozialer Interaktion hybrid zwischen menschlichen und maschinellen Akteuren ablaufen und teilweise algorithmisiert sind. Im Anschluss beleuchten wir drei aktuelle, sich gegenseitig bedingende Entwicklungen von Social Machines: die immer stärkere Verschmelzung von Sozialität und Maschine, die Vermessung von Nutzeraktivitäten als Grundstoff gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhalts und die zunehmende Algorithmisierung gesellschaftlicher Prozesse. Abschließend diskutieren wir, dass eine teilhabeorientierte, demokratischen Werten folgende Gestaltung von Social Machines die Perspektiven der Nutzungsakzeptanz, der gesellschaftlichen Akzeptabilität und der nachhaltigen Wirtschaftlichkeit adressieren und umsetzen muss.

Mehr
Digitales Lernen ist ein zentraler Bestandteil der heutigen Bildungslandschaft geworden. Insbesondere Lernvideos haben in den letzten Jahren deutlich an Popularität gewonnen und Plattformen wie YouTube sind heute ein fester Bestandteil von Lernprozessen. Bildungseinrichtungen haben diese Entwicklung erkannt und Lernvideos in ihre Lernsysteme integriert. Allerdings sind die heutigen Lernvideos oft nicht sehr ansprechend, weil es an Gestaltungswissen mangelt, wie Interaktionen und gamifizierte Elemente die Motivation und den Lernerfolg steigern können. Dieser Mangel an Gestaltungswissen führt zu minderwertigen Lernvideos, die den Lernprozess der Lernenden meist nicht in dem Maße unterstützen, wie sie es könnten. Um effektive Lernvideos zu entwickeln, welche die Lernenden adäquat unterstützen, ist handfestes und praktisches Gestaltungswissen für die Lehrenden notwendig. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickeln wir Entwurfsmuster für interaktive gamifizierte Lernvideos, um Praktiker*innen bei der Erstellung effektiver Lernvideos anzuleiten, die die Motivation und das Engagement von Lernenden zu fördern, welche sie aktiv in ihrem Lernprozess unterstützen zu können. Wir setzen damit zusätzlich die Grundlage für zukünftige Forschung zur Gestaltung effektiver Lernvideos. Dabei folgen wir einem gestaltungsorientierten Forschungsansatz, um die Entwicklung unserer Entwurfsmuster zu systematisieren.

Mehr
Eine der kritischsten Aufgaben für Start-ups ist die Validierung ihres Geschäftsmodells. Daher versuchen Gründer, Informationen wie z. B. Feedback von anderen Akteuren zu sammeln, um die Gültigkeit ihrer Annahmen zu bewerten und Entscheidungen zu treffen. Bisherige Arbeiten über Entscheidungshilfen für die Validierung von Geschäftsmodellen bieten jedoch keine Lösung für den höchst unsicheren und komplexen Kontext von Start-ups in der Frühphase. Der Zweck dieser Studie ist daher die Entwicklung von Entwurfsprinzipien für ein hybrides Entscheidungsunterstützungssystem (HIDSS), das die komplementären Fähigkeiten von menschlicher und maschineller Intelligenz kombiniert. Wir verfolgen einen gestaltungsorientierten Forschungsansatz, um ein Prototyp-Artefakt und eine Reihe von Designprinzipien zu entwerfen. Unsere Studie liefert präskriptives Wissen für HIDSS und trägt zu früheren Arbeiten über Entscheidungsunterstützung für Geschäftsmodelle, über die Anwendung der komplementären Stärken von Mensch und Maschine zur Entscheidungsfindung und über Unterstützungssysteme für extrem unsichere Entscheidungsprobleme bei.

Mehr
Die Verbindung von menschlicher und künstlicher Intelligenz, die wir hybride Intelligenz (HI) nennen, soll Mitarbeitende im IT-Support entlasten und unterstützen. In diesem Beitrag gestalten wir nutzungszentriert eine HI-basierte Dienstleistung am Beispiel des IT-Supports. Wir beginnen mit einer Problemidentifizierung am Beispiel von drei unterschiedlich groß aufgestellten Unternehmen. Basierend auf diesen identifizierten Herausforderungen des IT-Supports wurden die Interaktionen während der Dienstleistungserbringung zwischen allen Beteiligten (Mitarbeitende, Kund:innen und System) nutzungszentriert neu gestaltet.

Mehr
Digital nudging is a promising approach from behavioral economics. In deci-sions where individuals tend to struggle, nudges can support users of digital systems by aligning their behavior with their preferences. Despite their wide use, most digital nudges are designed to support the intended behavior from the perspective of a company while neglecting potential legal, ethical, or individual constraints or preferences. With modern technologies such as artificial intelli-gence or big data, these issues multiply and with the increasing effectiveness of digital nudges and use of new technologies, this has become even more critical. Thus, in this paper we follow a Design Science Research approach to develop a process model for the systematic development of legitimate nudges (DELEN). Legitimacy requires that dealings between different entities shall be fair. Unlike other models, we set normative boundaries derived from literature, expert in-terviews, and target group segmentation as integral elements. Target group seg-mentation increases nudge effectiveness and avoids unnecessary burdens for other individuals. By doing so, the DELEN process model paves the way for legitimate and effective digital nudges.

Mehr
Volatility, uncertainty, ambiguity, and complexity (VUCA) are drivers in today’s business world. Therefore, an increasing number of organizations implement agility (agile methods) to cope with the rapid and accelerating change. However, these agile transformations do not succeed unhindered, and some fail. One reason for that is the employees lacking an agile mindset and they do not support or participate in the transformation. So far, knowledge of the agile mindset is in its infancy. A conceptualization for developing a measuring instrument on the individual level is lacking. Furthermore, the relevance of the agile mindset regarding organizational performance in a VUCA world is still unclear. Our study aims to close this gap. To do so, we examine the agile mindset with 15 qualitative interviews and conduct an online survey (N=449) to predict organizational agility and organizational performance based on the agile mindset. As for results, we conceptualize the agile mindset as an attitude that comprises four dimensions: ’learning spirit’, ‘collaborative exchange’, ‘empowered self-guiding’, and ‘iterative value creation’. We have found an indirect effect of the agile mindset affecting organizational performance towards organizational agility. These findings contribute to the agility and management research by providing both a conceptualization and a measuring instrument for the agile mindset. Furthermore, the agile mindset´s relevance in agile transformation is explained and its relation to organizational performance outlined. For successful agile transformation, executives must focus on the agile mindset of their employees and foster this by e.g. being a role model.

Mehr
We present an annotation approach to capturing emotional and cognitive empathy in student-written peer reviews on business models in German. We propose an annotation scheme that allows us to model emotional and cognitive empathy scores based on three types of review components. Also, we conducted an annotation study with three annotators based on 92 student essays to evaluate our annotation scheme. The obtained inter-rater agreement of α = 0.79 for the components and the π = 0.41 for the empathy scores indicate that the proposed annotation scheme successfully guides annotators to a substantial to moderate agreement. Moreover, we trained predictive models to detect the annotated empathy structures and embedded them in an adaptive writing support system for students to receive individual empathy feedback independent of an instructor, time, and location. We evaluated our tool in a peer learning exercise with 58 students and found promising results for perceived empathy skill learning, perceived feedback accuracy, and intention to use. Finally, we present our freely available corpus of 500 empathy-annotated, student-written peer reviews on business models and our annotation guidelines to encourage future research on the design and development of empathy support systems.

Mehr
Argumentation is an omnipresent foundation of our daily communication and thinking. The ability to form convincing arguments is not only the fundament for persuading an audience of novel ideas but also plays a major role in strategic decision-making, negotiation, and productive civil discourse. However, students often struggle to develop argumentation skills due to a lack of individual and instant feedback in their learning journey, since providing feedback on the individual argumentation skills of learners is very time consuming and not scalable if conducted manually by educators. Following a design science research approach, we propose a new class of argumentation learning systems that provide students with individual and ongoing tutoring to support them in learning how to argue. We build our socio-technical design on a combination of user-centered design principles, a conceptualization of argumentation structures in student-written text, and Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning classifiers to provide individual feedback. To investigate if the new system class of AI-based argumentation tutoring systems helps students to improve their argumentation skills, we evaluated the novel artifact class in two empirical studies in comparison to traditional argumentation learning systems. In a laboratory experiment (study 1), as well as in a field experiment in a large-scale lecture over three months (study 2), we found that AI-based argumentation tutoring systems based on our design principles, argumentation schemes, and algorithms improve the short- and long-term argumentation skills of students significantly compared to the traditional argumentation learning approaches.

Mehr
get_appSarah Oeste-Reiß, Eva Bittner, Izabel Cvetkovic, Andreas Günther, Jan Marco Leimeister, Lucas Memmert, Anja Ott, Bernhard Sick, Kathrin Wolter
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Aufgrund der Fortschritte im Bereich der künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) ergeben sich neue Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten zur Reorganisation von Wissensarbeit an der Schnittstelle von Menschen und Maschine. Durch die Verschmelzung von menschlicher und künstlicher Intelligenz können komplementäre Stärken zum Lösen von Arbeitsaufgaben gebündelt werden. Neuartige Wissensarbeitssysteme sind erforderlich, die Wissensarbeitende sowohl bei der Ausübung von Routineaufgaben als auch Nichtroutineaufgaben unterstützen. Der Schlagwortartikel umreißt die Grundlagen von Wissensarbeit und arbeitet die Charakteristika von Routineaufgaben und Nichtroutineaufgaben innerhalb von Arbeitsprozessen auf. Es werden Grenzen klassischer IT-gestützter Wissensarbeitssysteme als Werkzeuge umrissen, die Wissensarbeitende im Arbeitsprozess unterstützen. Aufbauend darauf diskutiert der Artikel, dass technologische Fortschritte eine arbeitsprozessintegrierte und personalisierte Unterstützung von Wissensarbeitenden erlauben. Dazu verweist der Artikel auf die Charakteristika von kollaborativ interaktiv lernenden Systemen. Darauf aufbauend werden Hybride Wissensarbeitssysteme vorgestellt, die sowohl das KI-unterstützte menschliche Lernen als auch das Mensch-unterstützte maschinelle Lernen unterstützen. In diesem Zusammenhang beschreibt der Artikel definitorische Grundlagen von menschlicher, künstlicher und hybrider Intelligenz, stellt drei Archetypen von Mensch-Maschine-Aufgaben innerhalb von hybriden Wissensarbeitssystemen vor und umreißt drei Gestaltungsdimensionen solcher Systeme. Mittels eines Praxisbeispiels zum kollaborativen Schreiben von Journalist*innen beschreibt der Artikel exemplarisch die hybride Wissensarbeit. Der Artikel schließt mit einem Ausblick auf zukünftige Forschungsbedarfe.

Mehr
Gendered voice based on pitch is a prevalent design element in many contemporary Voice Assistants (VAs) but has shown to strengthen harmful stereotypes. Interestingly, there is a dearth of research that systematically analyses user perceptions of different voice genders in VAs. This study investigates gender-stereotyping across two different tasks by analyzing the influence of pitch (low, high) and gender (women, men) on stereotypical trait ascription and trust formation in an exploratory online experiment with 234 participants. Additionally, we deploy a gender-ambiguous voice to compare against gendered voices. Our findings indicate that implicit stereotyping occurs for VAs. Moreover, we can show that there are no significant differences in trust formed towards a gender-ambiguous voice versus gendered voices, which highlights their potential for commercial usage.

Mehr
Several authors have illustrated the benefits of data in organizations. For realizing benefits, we see two major challenges for organizations. First, there are necessary investments, which have to be justified. Second, adequate data analytics competencies can be seen as enablers for realizing benefits. We aim to support organizations by showing relevant competencies and achievable business values. We present theoretical propositions and a research agenda on how to move the field of data analytics competencies forward.

Mehr
Die Digitalisierung verändert nicht nur unser privates, sondern auch unser Arbeitsleben. Immer mehr Daten über Individuen sind online verfügbar und werden für die Nutzung von bestimmten Online Services vorausgesetzt. Hierbei verlieren die Nutzenden oft den Überblick, wie und welche Daten sie von sich preisgeben. Dies birgt nicht nur das Risiko der Preisgabe von privaten Daten, sondern auch unternehmensseitig das Risiko, dass wichtige Daten außerhalb des Unternehmens veröffentlicht werden. Hier kann das Konzept des digitalen Nudgings angewandt werden, welches nunmehr auch als edukatives Privacy Nudging genutzt werden kann. Das Konzept bezweckt, Individuen durch bestimmte Elemente wie beispielsweise Defaults zu Verhaltensänderungen anzuregen. Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, einen Überblick darüber zu geben, welche Privacy Nudges es im edukativen Bereich gibt und wie diese mit verschiedenen Lerntheorien in Einklang gebracht werden können. Der Text soll Forschern und Praktikern eine Orientierung geben, selbst edukative Privacy Nudges zu gestalten und endet mit einem Fallbeispiel, das aufzeigt wie einfache Gestaltungsänderungen Individuen dazu anregen können, sich privatheitsfreundlicher zu verhalten und sorgsamer mit ihren privaten Daten umzugehen.

Mehr
Designing novel technologies provide challenges to developers. To support developers in designing these technologies, design knowledge must be codified and made applicable for the future. In systems development, design patterns provide proven solutions to solving recurring problems. They contain templates for describing design information, often in tabular form, and are established tools for making complex knowledge accessible and applicable. Design patterns play a critical role in both practice and research in finding potential solutions. For researchers, patterns can provide a method for codifying design knowledge for future research. For practitioners, design patterns provide established solutions to recurring problems. By applying them in a particular context, the pattern represents elements of both the problem-space and the solution-space, providing an opportunity to bridge the gap between the two spaces. Due to the abstraction of design patterns, they can be used for different application scenarios. The preparation of the design knowledge in the design pattern is a critical step to support the user in the best possible way, that determines the usefulness of the pattern.

Mehr
get_appThiemo Wambsganss, Anuschka Schmitt, Thomas Mahning, Anja Ott, Sigita Soellner, Ngoc Anh Ngo, Jerome Geyer-Klingeberg, Janina Nakladal, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Educational process mining (EPM) offers new possibilities to discover, monitor, improve, or predict students’ learning processes using data about their learning activities captured in technology-mediated information systems (IS). Although EPM has recently attracted considerable research interest, there is still limited shared knowledge about the distinctive design characteristics of EPM from an integrative perspective. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify EPM characteristics. Building on a technology-mediated learning perspective, we develop a taxonomy that classifies EPM characteristics into four major categories (i.e., purpose, user, input, analysis). We evaluate and refine our taxonomy with ten domain experts, identified three clusters in the reviewed literature, and derived six archetypes of EPM scenarios based on our categorization. Finally, we formulate a novel research agenda to guide researchers in systematizing and synthesizing research on different technological embeddings of EPM in a students’ learning process.

Mehr
get_appChristoph Peters, Karen Eilers, Benedikt Simmert, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
What are the attributes of successful organizations? This is the question addressed by the Future Organization Report 2021. It focuses on the idea of “Organizational Excellence” and what organizations can do to achieve this goal.

Mehr
Voice assistants’ increasingly nuanced and natural communication bears new opportunities for user experiences and task automation, while challenging existing patterns of human-computer interaction. A fragmented research field, as well as constant technological advancements, impede a common apprehension of prevalent design features of voice-based interfaces. As part of this study, 86 papers across domains are systematically identified and analysed to arrive at a common understanding of voice assistants. The review highlights perceptual differences to other human-computer interfaces and points out relevant auditory cues. Key findings regarding those cues’ impact on user perception and behaviour are discussed along with the three design strategies 1) personification, 2) individualization and 3) contextualization. Avenues for future research are lastly deducted. Our results provide relevant opportunities to researchers and designers alike to advance the design and deployment of voice assistants.

Mehr
In Zeiten der Digitalisierung nimmt Informationstechnologie eine Schlüsselrolle im Modernisierungsprozess von Unternehmen ein. Zugleich bringt die Softwareeinführung das Risiko mit sich, den intendierten Nutzen nicht zu realisieren. Durch eine Dienstleistungssystem-Perspektive erscheint die Einbindung der Nutzer in die Softwareeinführung ein vielversprechender Ansatz. Das Ziel des Projektes ExTEND – Engineering von Dienstleistungssystemen für nutzergenerierte Dienstleistungen ist es daher, Nutzer in die Softwareeinführung nach dem Leitbild „Dienstleistungen von Nutzern für Nutzer“ zu befähigen, aktiv einen Beitrag zu der Gestaltung der Arbeitsumgebung zu leisten. Hieraus resultieren IT-gestützte Servicebausteine, in denen Nutzer sich gegenseitige Hilfestellungen geben und Handlungsalternativen in der Softwareeinführung aufzeigen. Durch ein Pilotierungsvorgehen werden die Servicebausteine in drei Anwendungsfeldern entwickelt und pilotiert. Hieraus resultiert evidenzbasiertes Gestaltungswissen für die Entwicklung von nutzergenerierten Dienstleistungen. Darüber hinaus wird ein Mehrebenenmodell für die Gestaltung von Dienstleistungssystemen vorgestellt, welches die Entwicklung von Dienstleistungssystemen unterstützt und über traditionelle Ansätze des Service Engineerings hinausgeht.

Mehr
Smart Personal Assistants (SPAs; such as Amazon’s Alexa or Google’s Assistant) let users interact with computers in a more natural and sophisticated way that was not possible before. Although there exists an increasing amount of research of SPA technology in education, empirical evidence of its ability to offer dynamic scaffolding to enhance students problem-solving skills is still scarce. To fill this gap, the aim of this paper is to find out whether interactions with scaffolding-based SPA technology enable students to internalize and apply problem-solving steps on their own in a 10th grade high school and a vocational business school class. Students in the experiment classes completed their assignments using Smart Personal Assistants, whereas students in the control classes completed the same assignments using traditional methods. This study used a mixed-method approach consisting of two field quasi-experiments and one post-experiment focus group discussion. The empirical results revealed that students in the experiment classes acquired significantly more problem-solving skills than those in the control classes (Study 1: p = 0.0396, study 2: p < 0.001), and also uncovered several changes in students’ learning processes. The findings provide first empirical evidence for the value of using SPA technology on skill development in general, and on problem-solving skill development in particular.

Mehr
get_appThiemo Wambsganss, Tobias Küng, Söllner Matthias, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Techniques from Natural-Language-Processing offer the opportunities to design new dialog-based forms of human-computer interaction as well as to analyze the argumentation quality of texts. This can be leveraged to provide students with adaptive tutoring when doing a persuasive writing exercise. To test if individual tutoring for students' argumentation will help them to write more convincing texts, we developed ArgueTutor, a conversational agent that tutors students with adaptive argumentation feedback in their learning journey. We compared ArgueTutor with 55 students to a traditional writing tool. We found students using ArgueTutor wrote more convincing texts with a better quality of argumentation compared to the ones using the alternative approach. The measured level of enjoyment and ease of use provides promising results to use our tool in traditional learning settings. Our results indicate that dialog-based learning applications combined with NLP text feedback have a beneficial use to foster better writing skills of students.

Mehr
Higher legal standards with regards to data protection of individuals such as the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) increase the pressure on developing lawful technologies. The development requires feedback from stakeholders such as legal experts that lack technical knowledge but are required to understand IT artifacts. As a solution, patterns can support interdisciplinary system development. We demonstrate how interdisciplinary patterns can support legal experts in arguing about technologies in court by introducing a law simulation study which is a well-known evaluation method in law. Our results show that patterns support legal experts in their argumentation about technologies in court. We provide theoretical contributions concerning cognitive fit theory about how patterns act as a bridge between the internal and external representation of problems and improve problem-solving performance related to the legal assessment of technology. In addition, we provide practical guidance for codifying and communicating design knowledge through patterns.

Mehr
Based on insights from an engineering design project conducted by Airbus and Local Motors, we describe how companies can leverage hybrid working by interlinking external crowds and internal employees, to increase the agility, quality and speed of product development. We identify the benefits and risks of hybrid working and describe the different ways of interlinking external crowds and internal employees. Finally, we provide recommendations for company executives who want to explore the use of hybrid working

Mehr
Based on recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI), chatbots are now increasingly offered as an alternative source of customer service. For their uptake user trust in critical. However, little is known about how these interfaces fundamentally influence trust perceptions. In particular, it’s unclear what exactly causes perceptual differences - the change towards a conversational interface or the usage of anthropomorphic design elements. In this study, an online experiment with 160 participants was conducted to examine the differential effects of conversational interaction and anthropomorphism on trust in the interface or the provider within the context of online loan applications. The results show that both treatment conditions affect trust in the interface and the provider by increasing perceptions of social presence. Meanwhile, trust in the interface significantly effects the intention to share information, while trust in the provider has no effect on behavioral intention.

Mehr
Higher legal standards regarding the data protection of individuals, such as the European General Data Protection Regulation, increase the pressure on developing lawful systems. In the development of technologies, not only developers are involved. It also requires knowledge from other stakeholders, such as legal experts, that lack technical knowledge but are required to understand IT artifacts. We see two strings that can benefit from the use of design patterns: first, the well-known use of design patterns to support developers in case of recurring problems. Second, we see potential that legal experts, who have to interact with and understand complicated, novel technologies, benefit from the same patterns. We conduct a revelatory case study using design patterns to develop and assess a smart learning assistant. We scaffolded the case interpretation through the human-centered view of socio-materiality and provide contributions concerning the use of design patterns in the development and assessment of lawful technologies.

Mehr
The success of innovative teaching/learning approaches aiming to foster problem solving in management education depends on useful and easy-to-use IT components in the learning process. However, the complexity of problem solving in self-regulated learning approaches may overwhelm the learner and can lead to unsatisfying learning outcomes. Research suggests the implementation of technology-enhanced scaffolds as a mechanism to guide the learners in their individual problem-solving process to enhance their learning outcomes. We present a theoretical model based on adaptive structuration theory and cognitive load theory that explains how technology-enhanced scaffolding contributes to learning outcomes. We test the model with a fully randomized between-subject experiment in a flipped classroom for management education focusing on individual problem solving. Our results show that technology-enhanced scaffolding contributes significantly to the management of cognitive load as well as to learning process satisfaction and problem-solving learning outcomes. Thereby, our paper provides new conceptual and empirically tested insights for a better understanding of technology-enhanced scaffolds and their design to assist problem solving and its respective effects in flipped classrooms for management education.

Mehr
get_appErnestine Dickhaut, Nadine Miedzianowski, Silke Jandt, Andreas Janson, Robin Knote, Jan Marco Leimeister, Alexander Roßnagel, Matthias Söllner, Laura Friederike Thies
Buch
Im Rahmen des DFG-geförderten Projekts AnEkA „Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster zur rechtsverträglichen und qualitätszentrierten Gestaltung kontextsensitiver Applikationen“ wurden Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster für die Gestaltung rechtsverträglicher, aber gleichermaßen qualitätszentrierter smarter persönlicher Assistenten erstellt. Neben einem umfangreichen Musterkatalog hat das Projektteam ein Vorgehen für die Erstellung von Entwurfsmustern erarbeitet. Die Handlungsbroschüre soll zunächst eine Einführung in die Thematik der rechtsverträglichen und qualitätszentrierten Entwicklung geben und das Potential des Einsatzes von Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmustern aufzeigen. Darauf aufbauend werden das methodische Vorgehen, wie Muster zu erstellen sind, sowie die im Projekt erstellten Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster anhand von einigen Beispielen inhaltlich vorgestellt. Abschließend werden Handlungsempfehlungen für die Erstellung und den Einsatz von Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmustern gegeben. Im Anhang werden alle im Forschungsprojekt AnEkA erarbeiteten Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster zur weiteren Nutzung zur Verfügung gestellt.

Mehr
Recent advances in Natural Language Processing not only bear the opportunity to design new dialog-based forms of human-computer interaction but also to analyze the argumentation quality of texts. Both can be leveraged to provide students with individual and adaptive tutoring in their personal learning journey to develop argumentation skills. Therefore, we present the results of our design science research project on how to design an adaptive dialog-based tutoring system to help students to learn how to argue. Our results indicate the usefulness of an adaptive dialog-based tutoring system to support students individually, independent of a human instructor, time and place. In addition to providing our embedded software artifact, we document our evaluated design knowledge as a design theory. Thus, we provide the first step toward a nascent design theory for adaptive conversational tutoring systems to individual support metacognition skill education of students in traditional learning scenarios.

Mehr
get_appMichael Marcin Kunz, Ulrich Bretschneider, Jan Marco Leimeister
Buchkapitel
Crowdfunding unterstützt neue Start-ups dabei, den Finanzierungsbedarf der ersten Unternehmensphase zu überwinden. Dieser Bedarf wird über die Unterstützung einer Vielzahl an Geldgebern mit kleinen Geldbeträgen realisiert. Das Ziel dieses Beitrages ist, den aktuellen Stand der Erfolgsfaktorenforschung im reward-based Crowdfunding zu reflektieren und auf Basis einer qualitativen Expertenbefragung um noch nicht betrachtete Aspekte zu erweitern. Durch dieses Vorgehen erhalten Projektinitiatoren einen Katalog an die Hand, der ihnen dabei hilft die Erfolgschancen eigener Kampagnen zu steigern.

Mehr
In August 2011 the Wall Street Journal published an essay by Netscape co-founder Marc Andreessen titled “Why software is eating the world”. He argues that “more and more major businesses and industries are being run on software and delivered as online services—from movies to agriculture to national defense. Many of the winners are Silicon Valley-style entrepreneurial technology companies that are invading and overturning established industry structures. … Companies in every industry need to assume that a software revolution is coming.” (Andreessen 2011). By pointing at examples in various industries from automotive and banking to defense, healthcare, music, retailing, and telecommunications, he illustrates the transformational power of information technology (IT) and software in particular. The discussion is not new and dates back to the early 2000s. For example, Power and Jerjian (2001, p. 99) mention for Heathrow airport that “software is the thing that runs the airport” and in a biological analogy they consider software to be the nervous system. Meanwhile, the large “big tech” software companies (e.g., GAFAM, BATX) have impressively confirmed this development: their digital platforms have spread over many industries with an impact on processes (e.g., interaction and transaction), on products (e.g., app stores and services) as well as on business models (e.g., streaming and as-a-service models). The recent tech-portmanteaus (e.g., Fintech, Insurtech, Regtech) also reflect the attitude of these startup businesses, which perceive themselves rather as IT (tech) companies than as representatives of the industry they are aiming to transform (Meijer and Kapoor 2014). In the same vein, the high valuation of Tesla Motors since early 2020 spurred an intense debate of whether the company is in the automotive or the tech business (e.g., Klebnikov 2020). Obviously, these developments have numerous implications for the field of IT management, which were discussed during a panel at the 82nd Annual German Business Researcher Conference on March 18, 2020. The panel builds on prior discussions regarding the impact of digitalization on IT management. For example, a BISE discussion section in 2017 addressed the implications of the broad trend of digitalization for the field of Business Information Systems Engineering and pointed out new topics, such as digital innovation and transformation, which complement existing competencies (e.g., in modeling and managing enterprise IT). The discussion revealed strong arguments for the strategic role of IT and that business and IT departments as well as academia and practice need to collaborate more closely (Legner et al. 2017). While these statements adopted a rather broad perspective, another discussion section focused on “the impact of digitalization on the IT department” (Urbach et al. 2019). It mentioned important and intricate challenges: On the one hand, IT departments need to move closer to the business units and, on the other hand, they need to constantly update their technological skills in an environment with a high pace of technological innovation. In a world “eaten by software” these developments are equally prevalent and lead to the question how businesses address these challenges, in particular, how they assess the dominant role of software, how activities in managing the software lifecycle should be organized, and what the implications are for the BISE community.

Mehr
Die Organisationen von morgen brauchen Mitarbeiter, die in der Lage sind, mit schnellen Veränderungen umzugehen und nicht-routinemäßige Probleme zu lösen. Der Erwerb von Problemlösungsfähigkeiten gilt als die wichtigste Fähigkeit für zukünftige Mitarbeiter, um beruflich erfolgreich zu sein. Die vorherrschenden Lerntheorien stimmen darin überein, dass ein wirksamer Weg zum Erwerb dieser Fähigkeiten darin besteht, dass jeder Einzelne individuelle Unterstützung durch einen persönlichen Tutor erhält. Für Bildungseinrichtungen wie Gymnasien und Universitäten ist dies aufgrund von finanziellen und organisatorischen Einschränkungen oft nicht möglich. Eine neue Klasse der Informationstechnologie - insbesondere smarte, persönliche Assistenten (z.B. Google's Assistant oder Amazon's Alexa) - hat das Potenzial, dieses Problem durch die Interaktion mit den Schülern in einer Weise anzugehen, die dem menschlichen Tutor sehr nahe kommt. Diese Technologie zeichnet sich durch einen hohen Grad an Anpassungsfähigkeit, Interaktivität und Zugänglichkeit aus. Auch wenn Forschungsarbeiten über das Design und die Verwendung von smarten, persönlichen Assistenten bereits existieren, fehlt der empirische Nachweis ihrer Fähigkeit, den Studierenden bei der Verbesserung ihrer Problemlösungsfähigkeiten zu helfen. Diese Studie basiert auf der Theorie des technologievermittelten Lernens und verwendet einen mixed-method Ansatz bestehend aus zwei Feld-Quasi-Experimenten und einer Post-Experiment Fokusgruppen-Diskussion an einem Wirtschaftsgymnasium und einer Wirtschaftsberufsschule mit insgesamt 90 Schülern, um den Effekt des Einsatzes smarter, persönlicher Assistenten auf den Erwerb von Problemlösungsfähigkeiten zu messen. Die empirischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Schülerinnen und Schüler in den Experimentierklassen deutlich mehr Problemlösungskompetenz erworben haben als in der Kontrollgruppe, was hauptsächlich auf Veränderungen in ihrem Lernprozess zurückzuführen ist. Die Ergebnisse liefern empirische Belege für die Bedeutung des Einsatzes neu entstehender smarten, persönlichen Assistenten für die allgemeine Entwicklung von Skills und speziell für die Entwicklung von Problemlösungsfähigkeiten. Darüber hinaus kann unsere Arbeit Bildungseinrichtungen und Pädagogen bei der Gestaltung und Implementierung smarter, persönlicher Assistenten helfen.

Mehr
Increasingly, firms follow the strategy of open business model innovation via the Internet. In this form of digital innovation management, firms make use of Internet platforms that allow them to integrate external customers and other stakeholders for (re-)innovation of their business models. However, the used IT tools on these Internet platforms suffer from not being able to merge the content of multiple users in an adequate way, thus the resulting business models suffer from low degrees of quality. Against this backdrop, in this research, we propose to equip these Internet platforms with a wiki technology. This would allow users to add to each other’s content, to make changes or to correct mistakes. In our action design research (ADR), we could empirically validate that this leads to a higher quality in terms of business models’ degree of elaboration. Since research that focusses on the design of Internet-based open BMI is still neglected, our research contributes to the literature base by being the first that answers ongoing open calls for research on this phenomenon of interest.

Mehr
Enrollment in online courses has sharply increased in higher education. Although online education can be scaled to large audiences, the lack of interaction between educators and learners is difficult to replace and remains a primary chal-lenge in the field. Conversational agents may alleviate this problem by engaging in natural interaction and by scaffold-ing learners’ understanding similarly to educators. However, whether this approach can also be used to enrich online video lectures has largely remained unknown. We developed Sara, a conversational agent that appears during an online video lecture. She provides scaffolds by voice and text when needed and includes a voice-based input mode. An evalua-tion with 182 learners in a 2 x 2 lab experiment demonstrated that Sara, compared to more traditional conversational agents, significantly improved learning in a programming task. This study highlights the importance of including scaf-folding and voice-based conversational agents in online videos to improve meaningful learning.

Mehr
get_appThiemo Wambsganss, Christina Niklaus, Matthias Cetto, Matthias Söllner, Siegfried Handschuh, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Recent advances in Natural Language Processing (NLP) bear the opportunity to analyze the argumentation quality of texts. This can be leveraged to provide students with individual and adaptive feedback in their personal learning journey. To test if individual feedback on students' argumentation will help them to write more convincing texts, we developed AL, an adaptive IT tool that provides students with feedback on the argumentation structure of a given text. We compared AL with 54 students to a proven argumentation support tool. We found students using AL wrote more convincing texts with better formal quality of argumentation compared to the ones using the traditional approach. The measured technology acceptance provided promising results to use this tool as a feedback application in different learning settings. The results suggest that learning applications based on NLP may have a beneficial use for developing better writing and reasoning for students in traditional learning settings.

Mehr
Recent advances in Natural Language Processing (NLP) bear the opportunity to design new forms of human-computer interaction with conversational interfaces. We hypothesize that these interfaces can interactively engage students to increase response quality of course evaluations in education compared to the common standard of web surveys. Past research indicates that web surveys come with disadvantages, such as poor response quality caused by inattention, survey fatigue or satisficing behavior. To test if conversational interfaces have a positive impact on the level of enjoyment and the response quality, we design an NLP-based conversational agent and deploy it in a field experiment with 127 students in our lecture and compare it with a web survey as a baseline. Our findings indicate that using conversational agents for evaluations are resulting in higher levels of response quality and level of enjoyment, and are therefore, a promising approach to increase the effectiveness of surveys in general.

Mehr
In the realm of smart services, smart personal assistants (SPAs) have become a popular medium for value co-creation between service providers and users. The market success of SPAs is largely based on their innovative material properties, such as natural language user interfaces, machine-learning-powered request handling and service provision, and anthropomorphism. In different combinations, these properties offer users entirely new ways to intuitively and interactively achieve their goals and, thus, co-create value with service providers. But how does the nature of the SPA shape value co-creation processes? In this paper, we look through a functional affordances lens to theorize about the effects of different types of SPAs (i.e., with different combinations of material properties) on users' value co-creation processes. Specifically, we collected SPAs from research and practice by reviewing scientific literature and web resources, developed a taxonomy of SPAs' material properties, and performed a cluster analysis to group SPAs of a similar nature. We then derived 2 general and 11 cluster-specific propositions on how different material properties of SPAs can yield different affordances for value co-creation. With our work, we point out that smart services require researchers and practitioners to fundamentally rethink value co-creation as well as revise affordances theory to address the dynamic nature of smart technology as a service counterpart.

Mehr
Smart Personal Assistants (SPA) fundamentally influence the way individuals perform tasks, use services and interact with organizations. They thus bear an immense economic and societal potential. However, a lack of trust - rooted in perceptions of uncertainty and risk - when interacting with intelligent computer agents can inhibit their adoption. In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review to investigate the state of knowledge on trust in SPAs. Based on a concept-centric analysis of 50 papers, we derive three distinct research perspectives that constitute this nascent field: user interface-driven, interaction-driven, and explanation-driven trust in SPAs. Building on the results of our analysis, we develop a research agenda to spark and guide future research surrounding trust in SPAs. Ultimately, this paper intends to contribute to the body of knowledge of trust in artificial intelligence-based systems, specifically SPAs. It does so by proposing a novel framework mapping out their relationship.

Mehr
Crowd work reflects a new form of gainful employment on the Internet. We study how the nature of the tasks being performed and financial compensation jointly shape work perceptions of crowdworkers in order to better understand the changing modes and patterns of digital work. Surveying individuals on 23 German crowd working platforms, this work is the first to add a multi-platform perspective on perceived working conditions in crowd work. We show that crowd workers need rather high levels of financial compensation before task characteristics become relevant for shaping favorable perceptions of working conditions. We explain these results by considering financial compensation as an informational cue indicating the appreciation of working effort that is internalized by well-paid crowd workers. Resulting boundary conditions for task design are discussed. These results help us understand when and under what conditions crowd work can be regarded as a fulfilling type of employment in highly developed countries.

Mehr
Crowdfunding is now established as a valid alternative to conventional methods of financing for startups. Unfortunately, to date, research has not investigated how backers can be encouraged to support entrepreneurs beyond funding. The aim of this study is to design and evaluate certain design elements for reward-based crowdfunding platforms that can engage backers in co-creational activities for product development. The study uses a design science research (DSR) approach and the theoretical concept of psychological ownership to inform a new design and then experimentally test that design. The results suggest that the derived artifacts positively influence co-creational activities in crowdfunding and that feelings of psychological ownership play an important mediating role. The contribution of this research is threefold. First, this paper extends crowdfunding’s application potential from merely a method of financing to a method of value creation with customers for product development. Second, the study advances DSR by applying a new DSR approach that shows whether a design performs as hypothesized by theory. Third, this research allows the exploration of backers’ individual behavior as opposed to their collective behavior.

Mehr
Digital nudging in privacy has become more important to protect users of information systems while working with privacy-related data. Nudging is about altering a user’s behavior without forbidding any options. Several approaches exist to “nudge” users to change their behavior. Regarding the usage of digital privacy nudges, research still has to understand the meaning and relevance of individual nudges better. Therefore, this paper compares the preferences of users for different digital nudges. To achieve this goal, it presents the results of a so-called best-worst scaling. This study contributes to theory by providing a better understanding of user preferences regarding design variations of digital nudges. We support practitioners by giving implications on how to design digital nudges in terms of user preferences.

Mehr
When using digital technologies, various data traces are left behind for collection, storage and analysis. Innovative solutions for information systems are needed that mitigate privacy risks and foster information privacy. One mechanism to achieve this is using privacy nudges. Nudges are a concept from behavioral eco-nomics to influence individual’s decisions. However, many nudges show low or at least less effects than choice architects hope for and expect. Therefore, this de-sign science research (DSR) project focusses on developing evidence-based de-sign principles for privacy nudges to improve their effectiveness and pave the way for more privacy sensitive IT systems. In this context, we adopt a DSR ap-proach from Vaishnavi & Kuechler. From a theoretical perspective, we are con-tributing to the discussion of what drives privacy sensitive behavior. We extend generic nudge design models, making them applicable in the context of data dis-closure. For practitioners, we provide guidance on how to design and implement effective privacy nudges in the user interface of digital work systems.

Mehr
Die Arbeit in Industrieunternehmen verändert sich auf Grund der Digitalisierung grundlegend. Entwicklungen in der Automatisierungstechnik können in naher Zukunft einen Teil der Arbeit von Arbeitnehmenden ersetzen. Dadurch wird es notwendig sein, sich auf die sich schnell wechselnden Qualifikationsanforderungen aus diesem Digitalisierungsprozess einzustellen. Hierzu gehört einerseits die schnelle Reaktionsfähigkeit auf die fortlaufenden Veränderungen, die in Unternehmen stattfinden, beispielsweise die Einbettung neuer Technologien in Arbeitsprozesse. Andererseits aber auch die notwendigen Upskilling-Prozesse, die durch den Einsatz neuer Technologien notwendig werden. Für beide Aspekte sind aber entsprechende Angebote zur Schulung notwendig, die sich flexibel auf die Bedarfe anpassen. Digitale Lernservices ermöglichen dabei auf die individuellen Arbeitssituation von Mitarbeitenden zu reagieren und im Sinne der Co-Creation den Prozess der gemeinsamen Erstellung von Lern- sowie Schulungsmaterialien durch die Einbindung mehrerer Akteure zu steuern.

Mehr
get_appIvo Blohm, Shkodran Zogaj, Ulrich Bretschneider, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Crowdsourced tasks are very diverse – and so are platform types. They fall into four categories, each demanding different governance mechanisms. The main goal of microtasking crowdsourcing platforms is the scalable and time-efficient batch processing of highly repetitive tasks. Crowdsourcing platforms for information pooling aggregate contributions such as votes, opinions, assessments and forecasts through approaches such as averaging, summation, or visualization. Broadcast search platforms collect contributions to solve tasks in order to gain alternative insights and solutions from people outside the organization, and are particularly suited for solving challenging technical, analytical, scientific, or creative problems. Open collaboration platforms invite contributors to team up to jointly solve complex problems in cases where solutions require the integration of distributed knowledge and the skills of many contributors. Companies establishing crowdsourcing platforms of any type should continuously monitor and adjust their governance mechanisms. Quality and quantity of contributions, project runtime, or the effort for conducting the crowdsourcing project may be good starting points.

Mehr
Smart personal assistants (SPAs) are proliferating into our daily lives and are a ubiquitous platform for providing digital services. However, when de-signing such innovative IT artifacts, interdisciplinary domain knowledge is of-ten needed. For example, SPAs utilize a plethora of sensors and cloud-based computation of data to deliver high-quality services, but those services, for ex-ample, may conflict with current regulations of law, e.g., with the Data Protec-tion Regulation (GDPR) in Europe. In that sense, approaches are needed to overcome the limited domain knowledge of developers. Thus, we propose in our study a pattern-based approach to codify interdisciplinary design knowledge. For this purpose, we derive theory-motivated requirements, develop design principles for patterns, and evaluate the utility of the patterns. Our re-sults from a 2x2 fully randomized field study show that the provision of pat-terns for SPA development supports interdisciplinary design through better con-sideration of both service quality and law compatibility. Thus, we provide de-sign contributions concerning how we effectively codify and communicate de-sign knowledge and provide practical guidance for supporting interdisciplinary IS development.

Mehr
Künstliche intelligente (KI)-Systeme erfreuen sich immer größerer Beliebtheit. Im Alltag erleben wir KI beispielsweise durch smarte persönliche Assistenten (SPAs), welche von Amazon, Google und Co. angeboten werden. Zwar haben diese KI-Systeme große Nutzungspotenziale, gleichzeitig gehen damit aber auch erhebliche Risiken einher, beispielsweise datenschutzrechtliche. Doch wie lassen sich diese Spannungsfelder auflösen? Interdisziplinäre Gestaltungsmuster im Systementwicklungsprozess können eine Lösung darstellen, welche nachfolgend mit Handlungsimplikationen für gesellschaftlich wünschenswerte „KI made in Germany“ skizziert wird.

Mehr
Bei der Entwicklung smarter persönlicher Assistenten können Anforderungsmuster helfen, die oftmals konfliktären Anforderungen zu systematisieren und miteinander in Einklang zu bringen. Sie können wiederkehrende rechtliche und qualitative Anforderungen in einer für Entwickler verständlichen Form darstellen und so helfen, sie im Entwicklungsprozess besser zu berücksichtigen.

Mehr
Higher legal standards with regards to data protection of individuals such as EU-GDPR are increasing the pressure on developers of IT artifacts. This is especially prevalent when considering conversational speech agents (CSA) that are collecting data in new ways, and thus, are oftentimes producing conflicts with existing law regulations. For this purpose, we introduce the law simulation method which is a well-known evaluation method among law researchers for capturing legal compatibility of IT artifacts such as CSA. With this rigorous method, we are able to derive actionable guidance for CSA developers to evaluate developer efforts for increasing legal compatibility. To illustrate our methodological approach, we describe in this workshop paper key steps of the method with respect to the evaluation of CSA. We discuss how this can serve as the foundation for a new evaluation method of legally compatible systems in information systems.

Mehr
Konferenzbeitrag
Higher legal standards with regards to the data protection of individuals such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation (EU-GDPR) are increasing the pressure on developers of IT artifacts. This is especially prevalent when considering conversational speech agents (CSA), which are collecting data in new ways and thus are oftentimes producing conflicts with existing law regulations. For this purpose, we introduce the law simulation method, which is a well-known evaluation method among law researchers for capturing the legal compatibility of IT artifacts such as CSA. With this rigorous method, we are able to derive actionable guidance for CSA developers to evaluate developer efforts for increasing legal compatibility. To illustrate our methodological approach, we describe in this paper key steps of the method with respect to the evaluation of CSA. We briefly discuss how this procedure can serve as the foundation for a new evaluation method of legally compatible systems in information systems.

Mehr