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Wearables provide great opportunities for improving personal health, but research challenges their capacity to evoke behavioral change effectively. Realizing the full potential of wearables requires a better understanding of users’ behavior change processes. Based on self-efficacy theory, we investigate how wearables influence users’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and subsequent health behavior. Using narrative interviews with twenty-five long-term wearable users, we show that wearables can have both positive and negative effects on users’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and that these perceptions are subject to internal and external contexts, which can positively or negatively affect users’ compliance. We also find that the internal context may have a compounding or neutralizing effect on self-efficacy, despite an adverse external context. Our study shows the contextual and transient nature of self-efficacy, thus contributing to self-efficacy theory and research on wearables and offering practical design implications.

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Business ecosystems are dynamic structures of various actors who co-create value. By combining complementary and substitute services, these actors create integrated offerings. This paper proposes a conceptual model which supports the analysis of ecosystems by de- composing the offering into distinct modules. Each mod- ule represents a beneficiary-provider duality with a specific value proposition and activities to be performed. It further describes, how different service modules con- tribute and may change the network-level purpose. The research follows design science and was facilitated in a consortium setup to integrate practitioners’ insights. The paper contributes by developing design principles for a service configuration model, identifying relevant activities to describe service creation, providing a logic to configure distinct services into a whole, and introducing the concept of substitutes into the discussion.

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The use of persuasive technologies to improve users’ personal health outcomes are becoming increasingly pervasive in the health context. While early research on persuasive technologies highlighted the technology’s individual and societal potential, recent empirical evidence has hinted about the adverse effects of their use. However, little is known about the causes of, experiences with, and coping reactions to these adverse effects. To fill this gap, we conduct an exploratory study of wearable technologies’ adverse effects on users based on twenty-five narrative interviews. Employing a technostress lens, we find two distinct patterns–control stress and validation stress–that show that users experience these adverse effects by revolving through a circular process of technostress and relying on various mechanisms to cope with it. We describe contributions to the literature and implications for research and practice.

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Wearables gelten als Hoffnungsträger der heutigen Zeit: Sie sollen die individuelle Gesundheit von Nutzern verbessern, dadurch die Gesundheitskosten senken und die gesellschaftliche Wohlfahrt erhöhen. Doch wie steht es wirklich um die Potenziale von Wearables? Dieser Beitrag gibt Einblick in Nutzung und Auswirkungen von Wearables und zeigt Implikationen für den Einsatz im betrieblichen Gesundheitsmanagement auf.

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Digitale Nudges nutzen psychologische Prinzipien, um Nutzerverhalten im digitalen Raum zu beeinflussen. Um als Unternehmen wirksame digitale Nudges zu entwickeln, ist ein systematisches Vorgehen notwendig. Zu diesem Zweck wird in diesem Artikel die Digital Nudge Design-Methode vorgestellt, die das Entwickeln von digitalen Nudges in vier Phasen unterstützt. Die in den einzelnen Phasen angewendeten Techniken und Prozessschritte werden am Beispiel der Hero AG illustriert, die jüngst mit der Methode eigene digitale Nudges zur Nutzungsintensivierung einer Business Intelligence-Software entwickelt hat.

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Wearable Activity Trackers (WATs) are often ascribed the ability to reduce health risks by promoting physical activity and healthful eating habits. However, research has shown that their use does not always lead to behavior changes. Using the affordance lens, this study investigates how WATs’ material features facilitate behavioral outcomes, as users interpret WATs in light of their personal health-related goals. Using narrative interviews with twenty-five WAT users, we found two catego-ries of affordances—learning affordances and behavior-focused affordances—leading to three behavioral outcomes: behavior change, compliance change, and remaining with the status quo. Moreover, we identified four types of users (based on their goal configurations) that actualized different affordances and showed different behavioral outcomes. While some types of users fundamentally changed their daily routines as a result of using WATs, others simply complied with technology cues or did not change their behavior at all. Our results have several implications for re-search on WATs and WATs’ design.

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Wearables have the potential to optimize health-related behaviors like physical activity and nutritional intake and to improve individual health outcomes. However, researchers are still doubtful about wearables’ capacity to induce behavior change in users. Research that has built on self-efficacy theory has shown that using wearables can influence the users’ perceptions of self-efficacy and behavioral responses both positively and negatively, indicating that there is little stability over time. This study will investigate the factors that cause instability in users’ situational perceptions of self-efficacy and behavioral reactions. We plan to conduct a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study with wearable users who self-report in weekly intervals on action-related restrictiveness, contextual restrictiveness, personal restrictiveness, situational self-efficacy, and their behavioral responses over eight weeks. Preliminary results from a pilot study with a reduced sample showed promising results. We will contribute to self-efficacy research by clarifying the factors that cause variations in behavioral responses and finding quantitative support for a situationally varying construct of self-efficacy. We will contribute to practice by deriving implications for the design of wearable devices.

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Business ecosystems have recently attracted a growing interest. Scholars are working on various approaches to describe actors, their relationships, and the implications of this dynamic organizational structure. Value co-creation among these interdependent actors, including customers, based on shared technologies, standards, and rules leads to the emergence of ecosystems. Using the design science research (DSR) approach, this paper presents and evaluates propositions for value co-creation leading to the emergence of business ecosystems. They provide structuring guidelines for academic research and build the basis for the design of a model aiming to explain the actors’ collaborative activities of value co-creation in ecosystems.

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Although Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS) are gaining ground in the field of health in-terventions, we lack an empirically grounded understanding of how the behavior change tech-niques (BCTs) that are implemented in BCSS influence behavioral outcomes. Based on the self-efficacy theory, we conduct narrative interviews to investigate the process along which BCTs ap-plied in wearable activity trackers (WATs) influence users’ perceived self-efficacy and behaviors. We find three patterns that show how WATs’ BCTs feed certain information sources on which users build their self-efficacy beliefs. We identify a positive path (i.e., high self-efficacy, leading to com-pliant behavior) and a negative path (i.e., low self-efficacy, leading to non-compliant behavior) for each of these patterns. Our findings indicate that, under certain circumstances and/or at a cer-tain level of task difficulty, BCTs inflict adverse effects on users’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and their subsequent behavioral responses. Our results provide insights for theory and practice into how BCSS affect perceptions of self-efficacy and behavior change.

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Konsequent umgesetzt, bietet Omnichannel Marketing (OCM) ein nahtloses kanalübergreifendes Kundenerlebnis sowie eine personalisierte und zeitlich optimierte Ansprache an den einzelnen Kanälen. Ziel ist es, enge, individuelle Kundenbeziehungen aufzubauen und den Kundenwert zu erhöhen. Die erfolgreiche Umsetzung von OCM erfordert neben einer tiefgreifenden organisationalen Transformation den Einsatz performanter Technologien. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über relevante Big Data Analytics-Technologien zur systematischen Gewinnung, Speicherung, Analyse und Anwendung von Kundendaten.

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Rapidly changing customer demands, increasing competition and faster development cycles requires companies to build capabilities to adapt their product and services as well as their business models quickly. By using agile methods, companies are supported in adapting to these changes and to achieve competitiveness in volatile markets. However, agile “off-the-shelf”-methods bear the risk of not answering the challenges of specific business situations. Thus, the concept of situational method engineering was applied to agile methods, resulting in situational agile method engineering (SAME). For SAME to work, a description of situations is necessary, which allows to decide among different agile methods and method fragments. Thus, situational characteristics have been derived in a literature review and validated in focus group interviews resulting in a list of 5 relevant situational characteristics for SAME.

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Given the large discrepancy between rates at which wearable activity trackers (WATs) are initially adopted and their continued use, the question concerning how sustainable use emerges arises. While IS research has found habit an important driver of sustained use, the mechanisms of habit formation have been left unexplored. To address this research gap, we conducted narrative interviews to investigate the habit-formation mechanisms behind the use of WATs. We identified two drivers of habitual WAT use and constructed five narratives that provide insights into the habit-formation processes of WAT users and possible interrupting factors. Our results provide a valuable basis for both theory and practice in explaining how sustained WAT use develops.

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The goal of digital nudging, a concept based on insights from behavioural economics, is to influence decision-making in digital choice environments. Information systems scholars increasingly see digital nudging as a promising research field, as do practitioners in the field of user interface, user experience, and digital service design. However, the use of digital nudging is not widespread because practitioners are often unaware of the concept or they do not have a systematic approach with which to apply it. Using a design science research approach, we develop the Digital Nudge Design method and evaluate its applicability and usefulness in practice. The method is based on requirements deduced from literature on digital nudging and persuasive systems and frominterviews with practitioners from five case organizations. The study contributes to research that seeks to develop methods for influential user interface design, and the method supports researchers and practitioners in designing digital nudges.

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Digital transformation has changed corporate reality and, with that, firms’ IT environments and IT governance (ITG). As such, the perspective of ITG has shifted from the design of a rela-tively stable, closed and controllable system of a self-sufficient enterprise to a relatively fluid, open, agile and transformational system of networked co-adaptive entities. Related to this par-adigm shift in ITG, this paper aims to clarify how the concept of an effective ITG framework has changed in terms of the demand for agility in organizations. Thus, this study conducted 33 qualitative interviews with executives and senior managers from the banking industry in Ger-many, Switzerland and Austria. Analysis of the interviews focused on the formation of catego-ries and the assignment of individual text parts (codings) to these categories to allow for a quantitative evaluation of the codings per category. Regarding traditional and agile ITG di-mensions, 22 traditional and 25 agile dimensions were identified. Moreover, agile strategies within the agile ITG construct and ten ITG patterns were identified from the interview data. The data show relevant perspectives on the implementation of traditional and new ITG dimensions and highlight ambidextrous aspects in ITG in the German-speaking banking industry.

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This paper reports on an exploratory, multisite case study of four organizations from the insurance, banking, telecommunications, and e-commerce industries that implemented big data analytics (BDA) technologies to provide individualized service to their customers. Grounded in our analysis of these four cases, a theoretical model is developed that explains how the flexible and reprogrammable nature of BDA technologies provides features of sourcing, storage, event recognition and prediction, behavior recognition and prediction, rule-based actions, and visualization that afford (1) service automation and (2) BDA-enabled human-material service practices. The model highlights how material agency (in the case of service automation) and the interplay of human and material agencies (in the case of human-material service practices) enable service individualization, as organizations draw on a service-dominant logic. The paper contributes to the literature on digitally enabled service innovation by highlighting how BDA technologies are generative digital technologies that provide a key organizational resource for service innovation. We discuss implications for research and practice.

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The proliferation of digital devices and services has fundamentally changed customer behavior and needs and thus the manner in which customers engage with firms. Many customers want to engage with firms across both online and offline channels, enjoying seamless switching and simultaneous use. In this changing environment, the omnichannel concept has been proposed as an appropriate approach to satisfy these customer demands. In practice, however, only a few firms have successfully initiated a transition from a multichannel business to an omnichannel business by integrating channels. One major challenge associated with channel integration is that of deploying the necessary dynamic capabilities that enable management to reconfigure the organization. Against this backdrop, we draw on the dynamic capability perspective to examine how firms transitioned to omnichannel management by the combination of adaptive organization principles and omnichannel retail information systems. For this purpose, this study sheds light on the microfoundations of the firms’ IT-enabled dynamic capabilities. The research is based on two qualitative case studies of a click-and-mortar retailer and an insurance firm that have transitioned to an omnichannel approach by successfully integrating their online and offline distribution channels. The findings make four primary contributions to theory and practice. First, they extend the literature on omnichannel business by discussing microfoundations related to channel integration grounded in empirical data. Second, our results provide relevant insights for information systems scholars on IT’s contribution to achieving the target of an omnichannel business. Third, the study contributes to research regarding dynamic capabilities by providing empirical insights into how firms deploy dynamic capabilities in practice. Fourth, for practitioners, this research provides valuable decision support on how to transform their organizations toward an omnichannel approach.

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Digital Nudging kann Nutzerverhalten im digitalen Kontext durch gezieltes Gestalten von Nutzeroberflächen lenken. Basierend auf Erkenntnissen der Verhaltensökonomik werden verhaltensbeeinflussende psychologische Effekte angewendet bzw. diesen entgegengewirkt, um Nutzer in ihrer Entscheidungsfindung zu unterstützen. Systematisch angewendet, kann Digital Nudging das Nutzererlebnis steigern und erheblich zum Wertbeitrag des Unternehmens beisteuern.

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Seit fünf Jahren wird die Blockchain-Technologie in den Medien intensiv diskutiert. Der Technologie wird ein hohes Disruptionspotenzial für den Finanzsektor zugesprochen sowie auch für weitere Branchen wie Versicherung, Logistik und Recht. Um den Mehrwehrt der Blockchain verstehen zu können, erklärt der folgende Artikel ihre DNA und Anwendungsfelder.

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The paper presents guidelines for education in business and information systems engineering (BISE) at tertiary institutions, which were designed by a working group comprising domain experts, both from academia and practice. The guidelines contain the learning outcomes in Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programs, in particular, the key subject-specific, social, and personal skills needed by BISE graduates. Moreover, corresponding occupational profiles, the specific skills required, as well as the essential and typical learning content for BISE education are described. Furthermore, detailed recommendations for the design of Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees curricula and sub-curricula in BISE, business administration, and com- puter science, respectively, are provided. The presented guidelines serve several purposes. Providing common directions for BISE education is aiming to support per- sonnel in charge of curriculum development and to assist students in program and career choice.

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Individuals make increasingly more decisions on screens, such as those on websites or mobile apps. However, the nature of screens and the vast amount of information available online make individuals particularly prone to deficient decisions. Digital nudging is an approach based on insights from behavioral economics that applies user interface (UI) design elements to affect the choices of users in digital environments. UI design elements include graphic design, specific content, wording or small features. To date, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie digital nudging. To address this research gap, we conducted a systematic literature review and provide a comprehensive overview of relevant psychological effects and exemplary nudges in the physical and digital sphere. These insights serve as a valuable basis for researchers and practitioners that aim to study or design information systems and interventions that assist user decision making on screens.

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Statt in Zürich oder München im Unterengadin arbeiten – das Projekt «mia Engiadina» hat die dafür nötigen Grundlagen geschaffen. Eine Chance für die Randregion, die Wertschöpfung zu vergrössern.

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Smart meters are the backbone of modern electricity metering and an important enabler of reaching energy efficiency targets. The implementation of new metering infrastructure is, however, making little progress and is often focused on technical aspects only. Additionally, existing smart metering information systems do not yet exploit the possibilities to optimally support customers in their electricity savings activities. Knowing customer preferences is absolutely essential for the effectiveness of energy efficiency measures and, as a consequence, for realizing the economic value of smart metering technology. The presented research contributes to the field by identifying customer value perceptions concerning new smart meter services in the retail electricity market in Switzerland. Founded on a choice-based conjoint analysis with a data sample of more than 1500 respondents from three Swiss regions, five customer segments with different preferences are identified. With the exception of the comfort-oriented customer segment, the other four segments are comprised of customers who are willing (1) to pay for smart meter services and (2) to change their behavior to save electricity. Based on the identified customer value perceptions, implications for the design of smart meter-based energy efficiency services are elaborated.

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Online travel agencies have emerged as the preferred channel to make travel arrangements, but industry reports show that the conversion rates on OTA websites are extremely low. Against this background, we aimed to create a user-interface design element that motivates users to complete their online booking instead of searching and comparing further options. This research in progress builds on insights from the emerging field of digital nudging and used a systematic process for developing a digital nudge based on the design science research paradigm. Specifically, we created a text-based nudge leveraging the goal framing effect, which will be empirically tested through an experiment in future research. Our research contributes to both behavioral and design-oriented research on persuasive technology and digital nudging as well as to practice aiming to create persuasive choice architectures for specific use contexts and goals.

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The evolution of technology and the constant digitalisation strongly influence how consumers behave, how markets develop, and how companies and consumers interact. By offering many channels, companies attempt to react to these developments. In recent years, researchers as well as practitioners have proposed omnichannel management as the best approach to offer several channels. An omnichannel strategy enables consumers to use channels seamlessly and interchangeably and experience the channels uniquely. However, reality looks different: many channel management approaches coexist in practice, and in research, terms to describe different concepts are used without clear distinctions. This paper seeks to eliminate ambiguities regarding the term omnichannel management. By delimiting the term from related approaches and understanding current topics discussed by omnichannel management research, this paper creates a common basis from which to fully understand the concept. Omnichannel management has shown relevance in many areas, but particularly in retailing, marketing, and information systems (IS) research. IS plays an important role in the implementation of the omnichannel approach because obstacles are often technology-related and companies are strongly dependent on information technology (IT). To move research on omnichannel management forward, this paper proposes directions for further research.

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The proliferation of digital technologies enhances the possibilities for collecting customer data. This has tremendously increased the interest in the use of business intelligence and analytics (BI&A) to generate knowledge about customers’ behaviour, preferences and demands. Firms have recognised the potential of BI&A; however, they are still unsure about the exact action possibilities of BI&A to enhance their customer orientation. Thus, in this paper, we aim to identify the functional affordances of BI&A with regard to the establishment of customer-oriented work practices. We conducted an interpretive single case study of a bank in Switzerland. Our results reveal seven affordances from the firm’s perspective. These findings enable us to explain how BI&A may be used in the case-study organisation and what its potential outcomes are. Moreover, we highlight the contributions of BI&A to a firm’s customer response and customer orientation capabilities.

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Linking social networks with government applications promises various benefits, such as improving citizens’ public engagement, increasing transparency and openness in government actions, and new or enhanced government services. The research goal is to drive innovation in governments through the integration of user activities from social networks into government applications. Instead of using third-party social media tools, we call for self-developing integration software, so that the government retains full control of the sensitive government data that is linked to social network user data. Following a design science approach, we developed a data model of user activities in social networks. Our 40 user activity types conceptualize the common fundamental data structure and are a means for comparing current features of ten prominent social networks. We find that a substantial share of user activities can be mutually integrated by wrapping social network Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

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Business model innovation is a crucial task for established firms, as they need to be able to adapt to increasingly dynamic market environments and foster innovation proactively. However, many incumbent managers struggle with inertia and cognitive barriers hindering adoption of forward-looking business models. Extant business model literature offers methods, which promote thinking outside the realms when designing novel business models. However, there are little insights yet on how to avoid falling back into the trap when converting novel designs into an operative business. By building on the recently emerging cognitive view on business models as well as on theory from cognition in strategy and psychology, we design a process model. The approach aims at mitigating cognitive barriers while assessing required actions for the commercialization of novel business models, which typically needs to be supported by middle management. We evaluate the artifact based on a longitudinal, in-depth case study with a large firm from the enterprise application software industry.

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Previous research has emphasized the virtues of customer insights as a key source of competitive advantage. The rise of customers’ social media use allows firms to collect customer data in an ever-increasing volume and variety. However, to date, little is known about the capabilities required of firms to turn social media data into valuable customer insights and exploit these insights to create added value for customers. Based on the dynamic capabilities perspective, in particular the concept of absorptive capacity (ACAP), the authors conducted multiple case studies of seven mid-sized and large B2C firms in Switzerland and Germany. The results provide an in-depth analysis of the underlying processes of ACAP as well as contingent factors – that is, physical, human and organizational resources that underpin the firms’ ACAP.

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Social Customer Relationship Management (SCRM) ergänzt das klassische Kundenbeziehungsmanagement (CRM) um die bisher nicht vorhandenen Möglichkeiten des Web 2.0. Trotz des zunehmenden Social Media-Engagements fehlt es Unternehmen an Methoden, um den Beitrag des Einsatzes sozialer Medien zu den Unternehmenszielen zu quantifizieren. Dieser Beitrag präsentiert ein strukturiertes Vorgehensmodell, welches Unternehmen dabei unterstützen soll ihre SCRM-Ziele in messbare Kennzahlen zu übersetzen.

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Digitalization is omnipresent in today’s world. Today, it is one of the main drivers for the transformation of business models. This article describes the drivers and challenges of digitalization using the case of Ringier, a leading Swiss media company

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Durch die Integration von Daten aus sozialen Netzwerken und Informationssystemen (IS) im Unternehmen können betriebliche Abläufe verbessert werden, indem neue und relevante Informationen über Kunden/Konsumenten zur Verfügung stehen und Prozesse durch Automatisierung beschleunigt werden. Das Forschungsziel des vorliegenden Beitrags ist die einheitliche Datenintegration von Nutzeraktivitäten verschiedener sozialer Netzwerke mit IS im Customer Relationship Management. Der Ergebnistyp ist ein Datenmodell für Nutzeraktivitäten, welches auf vorhandenen Konzepten basiert und nach gestaltungsorientiertem Forschungsansatz entwickelt wurde. Die Konkretisierung durch die Sicht auf die Daten, erweitert die wissenschaftliche Perspektive und ermöglicht die Implementierung einer Integrationslösung. In einem Softwareprototyp wurde das Datenmodell in einem Anwendungsfall erprobt und dafür verwendet, die unterschiedlichen Datenstrukturen der sozialen Netzwerke LinkedIn, Facebook und Twitter zu vereinheitlichen, um Nutzeraktivitäten plattformunabhängig zu filtern. Die generelle Praxistauglichkeit des Datenmodells in anderen Anwendungsfällen muss künftig durch weitere Einsätze aufgezeigt werden.

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For the design and engineering of enterprises, several methodologies are available that successfully address certain aspects of design problems in enterprises or certain domains. In real-world design problems it is essential to choose the right means to reach the desired ends. Often it is not apparent which methodology is best chosen in order to reach desired ends. Additionally, real-world design problems often require several such methodologies to be combined because multiple aspects have to be covered and/or the problem combines characteristics of several domains. In order to allow for a systematically understanding and comparison of methodologies and for a facilitation of their composition (if necessary), we propose a general conceptual framework. The framework allows analysing the essential concepts and constituent parts of enterprise engineering methodologies. The resulting analysis supports decisions making concerning which methodology or which combinations of methodologies to apply to the given design problem. To demonstrate its usefulness, we first analyse the concepts and building blocks of two design and engineering methodologies on that basis. Second, we show how these two methodologies, which are based on very similar concepts -- as resulted from the analysis by applying the conceptual framework -- can be combined in order to derive at a complete solution for a given design problem.

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The proliferation of digital devices and services has fundamentally changed consumer behavior and needs, and thus the way consumers engage with firms. Many consumers want to engage with firms across all channels, enjoying seamless switching and simultaneous use. Within this dynamic channel environment, the omnichannel concept has been proposed as an appropriate approach to fulfill these demands. However, in practice, many firms do not yet provide an omnichannel experience and need to transform. With this research-in-progress paper, we outline our approach to investigating this phenomenon based on the concept of dynamic capabilities. With insight gained through a multiple case study approach, we hope to give practitioners decision support and researchers new stimuli for further research by identifying best practice dynamic capabilities for transitioning to omnichannel management.

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Companies have long recognised that their participation in social networks is expected by existing and new potential customers, who request support, provide feedback to products they own, post complaints and exchange views about the company, for example. Information systems are required for identifying relevant user activities that must be dealt with in a given time. Therefore, existing social media tools provide analytical functions. The integration of these tools and/or social networks directly with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems, however, is still sparse. We propose a system architecture for integrating user activities in social networks with CRM, which describes eight subsystems and serves as a construction plan to implement an integration software. The research follows the process of a design science research and includes proposed components of related system models from existing literature. Parts of the architecture have been evaluated in the context of a software-prototype that creates opportunity-tickets based on new posts, and thereby triggers the lead management process of a consulting company.

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The widespread use of wearables for self-tracking activities despite potential privacy risks is an intriguing phenomenon. For firms, the data collected from individuals’ wearable use are highly valuable for generating in-depth customer insights. Accordingly, firms have an increasing desire for these data. Despite the undisputed relevance of self-tracking activities in practice, there is scarce knowledge among information systems (IS) scholars about the perceived values of wearables that drive individuals’ use and the reasons why these values prevail over the privacy risks. Against this background, our research set out to better understand why people use wearables despite privacy risks by investigating the perceived values of wearables that drive individuals’ use and disclosure of data and the reasons why these values prevail over privacy risks of wearable use. Based on the concept of the privacy calculus and concepts from behavioural decision-making, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 wearable users from Switzerland. As a result, we reveal eight values that individuals perceive through the use of wearable devices. Furthermore, we illustrate the low awareness regarding privacy risks and explain how the reliance on prominent dimensions and heuristics are influencing individuals’ value-risk assessment.

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A growing number of companies are recognising the benefits of using social media in customer relationship management. At the same time, the consumers' expectations are rising: short response times, individual communication, real interaction with humans, and participation. It is a challenge to observe the many different user activities on many different social media sites. The aim is to reduce the complexity of integrating multiple social media sites with enterprise systems. Therefore, a conceptualisation of user activities in social media is presented. A user activity is a cross-over of an action invoked on an object and a user who acts in a certain context. The 40 user activity types are compared with actual features of ten social media sites. We find out that a substantial share of them can be integrated technically using the social media site's Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

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Social CRM (SCRM) gilt als neues Paradigma, um die Möglichkeiten des Web 2.0 für das Kundenbeziehungsmanagement zu nutzen. Die Praxis zeigt, dass es verschiedene Schwerpunkte und Ziele bei den Ansätzen für SCRM gibt. Dieser Beitrag erörtert das Zielesystem für SCRM und gliedert die Ziele in die Dimensionen Infrastruktur, Prozesse, Konsumenten und Unternehmensleistung.

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This paper presents a formative measurement model for Social CRM technology use from an organizational perspective. The current literature measures the usage of Social Media technologies (e.g., Facebook) and single Social CRM functions (e.g., information generation) with reflective indicators, but does not provide a structured approach, which would generate deeper insights into this research field (i.e. formative indicators). To address this gap, the article develops and evaluates formative indicators and corresponding constructs of Social CRM technology use, following the procedure of Moore and Benbasat (1991). To evaluate the impact of single indicators on their corresponding constructs, data is analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis with a survey sample of 122 marketing, communication and IT decision makers. The results show that four constructs measure the use of Social CRM technologies (Processing, Communication, IS Integration, and Management), which constitutes the formative measurement model. The construct Processing highlights a second-order construct, including Monitoring and Capturing, Analysis, and Exploitation as first-order constructs. Generally, the developed formative indicators and corresponding constructs generate deeper insights through a control system within a company, so as to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their marketing, communication as well as IT efforts.

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This paper presents a formative measurement model for Social CRM performance in order to achieve and assess company objectives. The current literature for measuring Social CRM performance does not provide a holistic approach and is operationalized with reflective indicators. To address this gap, the article follows the procedure of Moore and Benbasat (1991), including the creation and assessment of new constructs with new developed and evaluated formative indicators. To evaluate the impact of single indicators on their corresponding constructs, the data is analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis using SmartPLS with a surveying sample of 126 marketing, communication and IT decision makers. The results show that the constructs of infrastructure performance, process performance, customer performance and organizational performance measure Social CRM performance. Especially the first-order constructs of indirect customer performance and department-specific processes are important aspects in this context. Generally, the developed formative indicators and new evaluated first- and second-order constructs generate deeper insights through a control system for Social CRM activities, in order to achieve organizational objectives and track them over time.

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Ein erfolgreicher Einsatz von Social CRM setzt ein tiefgehendes Verständnis der Kundenbedürfnisse voraus. Das Competence Center Social CRM der Universität St.Gallen (HSG) hat in einer repräsentativen Umfrage untersucht, welche Vorteile sich Kunden durch die Nutzung digitaler Medien erwarten.

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The concept of business model innovation has gained growing interest in the past years to cope with the demanding challenges of increasingly dynamic market environments and the advent of the network economy. While most research in the field has previously focused on analysis and design of business models, as well as taxonomies, there has been paucity in how to pursue this demanding endeavor systematically and on a continuous basis in a corporate environment. This paper focuses on the exploration of process antecedents. We use data from three firms from different industries to explore this question and identify five antecedents:(1) Sense of need of continuous business model innovation, (2) adoption of a common firm-wide 'language' to develop new business models, (3) process variation based on organizational characteristics and degree of business model innovation, (4) cross-firm facilitation of process and collaboration, and (5) culture of constructive dialogs across functions and business areas.

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This paper presents an empirical investigation of a Social CRM performance model within an organizational perspective. A constraining factor regarding the implementation of Social CRM and the achievement of its objectives is the lack of an appropriate performance model. Little research has been conducted on a corresponding holistic approach and on the development of formative performance constructs. To address this gap, the article develops and empirically evaluates a Social CRM performance model, including an infrastructure-, process-, customer- and organizational performance construct. The data is analyzed using a structural equation model with a surveying sample of 126 marketing, communication and IT decision makers. The results show that infrastructure performance has an indirect, process performance a direct and customer performance no influence on organizational performance. The Social CRM performance model generates deeper insights into a company's performance interrelationship and provides a decision support system, in order to improve Social CRM activities and enhance organizational performance.

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This paper presents an assessment schema for Social CRM tools based on an empirical investigation. A constraining factor regarding the implementation of Social CRM tools (e.g., Engager, Demand Media etc.) is a lack of corresponding comparability of the different features (e.g., analysis of individual data, CRM interface etc.). Little research has been conducted on the assessment of Social CRM tools, and even less have used empirical investigations to develop an assessment schema for surveying the use of corresponding technologies. To address this gap, the study reveals a quantitative investigation of Social CRM technologies use as well as develops and evaluates an assessment schema for Social CRM tools (i.e., including a processing, communication, IS integration and management dimension). The data is analyzed using a formative measurement model with a surveying sample of 122 marketing, communication and IT decision makers. The results of the measurement model serve as weights for the assessment schema. It can be used to develop values for Social CRM tools with regard to their different ‘use' features and dimensions. A practical application is given for the tool Engager.

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Previous information systems (IS) research has paid little attention to the determinants of users' discontinuance and the consequences of that behaviour. This study investigates the influence of different discontinuance reasons on post-discontinuance word-of-mouth (WOM) communication in the context of mobile location-based services (LBS). Based on existing literature, a theoretical framework is developed representing three general reasons for IS discontinuance: 1) decline in service quality, 2) change in user needs, and 3) attractive alternatives. Their effect on post-discontinuance satisfaction and WOM is empirically tested through a quantitative survey study with German LBS users. Results indicate that a decline in service quality significantly affects negative customer WOM about the service, while a superior alternative mobile service as the main discontinuance reason leads to postdiscontinuance dissatisfaction, which may in turn influence negative WOM behaviour. In contrast, discontinuance due to a change in user needs is associated with a slightly elevated level of post-discontinuance satisfaction.

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Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) deals with the integration of Web 2.0 and Social Media into CRM. Social CRM is a business strategy supported by technology platforms in order to provide mutually beneficial value for both companies and customers. Gartner has identified Social CRM as one of the top innovation-triggered themes in 2013 [1]. In this context, a constraining factor regarding the implementation of Social CRM and the achievement of its objectives is the lack of an appropriate performance measurement model. Little research has been conducted on the relevant perfor-mance factors and Social CRM performance measurement models. To address this gap, the article presents the qualitative part of a two-stage multi-method approach. It comprises findings from a literature review, 15 semi-structured in-terviews and a consolidation procedure. A preliminary Social CRM performance measurement model is developed containing four performance dimensions, 25 classified Social CRM performance factors and corresponding performance measures.

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Driven by the strong demand for reusable yet situational business solutions on the one side and thenecessity to provide a stable, reliant foundation that allows to adapt the supporting informationsystems in a systematic way on the other side, the need for a closer link between relevant theoriesand successful practices for the design of enterprise information systems becomes evident. Theaim of the reported research is to provide such a link by means of prescriptive guidelines for theclass of problems concerning the reverse engineering of organisations. The reverse engineering oforganisations aims at deriving at the ontological models of organisations, which build the basis forthe design and engineering of information systems supporting the business needs. An ontologicalmodel as used in the presented research is defined as the highest-level constructional model of anorganisation, which is fully independent of its implementation. The prescriptive guidelines forreverse engineering presented in this paper are derived from the ?-theory (the Greek letter ? ispronounced PSI, which stands for Performance in Social Interaction), the theory that underliesthe notion of Enterprise Ontology. This theory regards organisations as social systems and sees ITsystems as support for social actors in performing coordination-related activities and productionrelatedactivities. In this paper we focus specifically on recommendations based on the ?-theoryconcerning the coupling of two types of enterprise models in order to derive at ontological modelsof organisations. The first type of models are derived by applying the Design and EngineeringMethodology for Organisations (DEMO) and the second type of models are derived by applying theArchitecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS).

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get_appTorben Küpper, Joel Järvinen, Heikki Karjaluoto, Alexander Wieneke, Tobias Lehmkuhl, Reinhard Jung
Monograph
This paper presents a structural model for evaluating the impact of Social CRM technology use on Social CRM performance. Today, companies implement Social CRM tools with a set of features, but still struggle to realize and assess the benefits of the implemented technology. Little research has been conducted on a corresponding approach linking Social CRM technology use to Social CRM performance. To address this gap, the article develops and empirically evaluates a structural model, built on the resource-based view and the capability perspective. Data from a survey sample of 122 marketing, communication and IT decision makers is analyzed through a structural equation model. The results show that Social CRM technology use has a significant impact on capabilities, which in turn have a direct impact on Social CRM performance. The theoretical contribution involves a new structural model, while the practical implications include the justification of current and future Social CRM engagements.

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The introduction of smartphones and the accompanying profusion of mobile data services have had a profound effect on individuals' lives. One of the most influential service categories is location-based services (LBS). Based on insights from behavioural decision-making, a conceptual framework is developed to analyse individuals' decisions to use LBS, focusing on the cognitive processes involved in the decision-making. Our research is based on two studies. First, we investigate the use of LBS through semi-structured interviews of smartphone users. Second, we explore daily LBS use through a study based on diaries. The findings highlight that the decision to use LBS can be described by either a comparative mode based on the value of LBS in relation to other available options, or an intuitive mode in which past experiences trigger the use of heuristics. These modes in turn have positive influences on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information.

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