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Agile work organization has experienced a significant increase in acceptance in recent years. However, literature falls short in explaining the transformation process that results from the implementation of agile work organization as a means of achieving increased adaptability, rate of speed and flexibility. We apply a process ontology to agile work organization by following three multinational firms that apply agile work organization, utilizing a case study approach over three years. At the macro level, our theory describes the transformation process set in motion by agile work organization as a three-phase process. At the micro level, we show that this transformation process is driven by specific design decisions on individual elements. Thus, our process theory contributes to a better understanding of agile work organization as a means to achieve organizational agility and to STS theory by showing that the emergence and constitution of STS are mainly driven by micro-level processes.

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Many organizations struggle to measure, control, and manage agility in a manner of continuous improvement. Therefore, we draw on Design Science Research to develop and test a tool for Continuously Assessing and Improving Agile Practices (CAIAP). CAIAP helps agile practitioners to monitor the alignment of “as is” agile practices on individual, team levels with the overall agile strategy of the organization. To develop CAIAP, we first empirically gather requirements, draw on the ICAP framework to base the tool development on a solid conceptual and theoretical basis. CAIAP helps agile practitioners to constantly monitor their agile practices on individual and team levels and to identify areas for improvement to gain greater organizational agility. To researchers, CAIAP helps to make the unit of analysis of agile work explainable, predictable and helps researchers to guide their own empirical research as well as serve as a basis for designing further tool support.

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The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) in the organization has received a lot of attention in recent years. While traditionally most CIOs had faced the difficulty of stepping out of the shadow of being coined as a "Utility & Infrastructure Director", they have been found to establish themselves as a driving force in defining and shaping the digital agenda and strategic direction of their organization (Peppard et al. 2011). This crisis-driven development is, however, now paving the way for a new era of the CIO role. As research shows, crises usually do not lead to a trend reversal, but to a trend acceleration (Gassmann and Ferrandina 2021). Therefore, this opportunity should be seized by CIOs in order to leverage the digitalization momentum gained through the COVID-19 crisis, and to build lean digital organizational structures and use strategic sourcing of services for cost efficiency. Thus, the focus here should not be on rebuilding old barriers, but to use the crisis induced dynamic to empower the CIO to successfully master the future challenges of efficiency, flexibility, resilience, scalability and innovation in the organization.

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Internal crowdsourcing showed a substantial increase of use in recent years, since it describes a promising alternative to traditional orchestration of employees in today’s digital era. However, literature falls short in explaining the transformation process that is enacted by such approaches of platform-based work organization. By using a work organizational perspective with the existing body of knowledge in combination with a revelatory case study, this paper develops a process theory explaining the transformation process of internal crowdsourcing over time and how the organization of work transform during this process. Moreover, we discovered four different forms of organizing work with a completely new form of work organization: the “Hybrid Flash Organization”. Scholars can identify critical incidents and process phases, while practitioners use our findings as a transformation guideline of internal crowdsourcing to detect potential threads, opportunities and constraints along the way of a successful implementation."

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Internal crowdsourcing showed a substantial increase of use in recent years, since it describes a promising alternative to traditional orchestration of employees in today’s digital era. However, literature falls short in explaining the transformation process that is enacted by such approaches of platform-based work organization. We apply a process ontology on internal crowdsourcing as platform-based mode of work organization, following two organizations employing internal crowdsourcing in a case study approach for over four years. On a macro level, our theory describes the transformation process enacted by internal crowdsourcing as three-phased process. On the micro-level, we illustrate that this transformation process is driven by specific design choices on single elements. In so doing, our process theory contributes to a better understanding of internal crowdsourcing as means for transformation work organization and to STS theory by showing that the emergence and constitution of STS is mainly driven by processes on a micro-level.

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