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Crowdsourcing

Übersicht

Crowdsourcing - Die Intelligenz der Masse nutzen: Crowdsourcing ist eine neue digitale Form der Arbeitsorganisation, bei der Unternehmen über das Internet auf das Wissen, die Kreativität und die Arbeitskraft einer grossen Masse an Teilnehmern zugreifen können. Bereits heute verlagern führende Unternehmen wie IBM systematisch Jobs in die Crowd, um Effizienz und Effektivität ihrer IT-Entwicklungsprozesse zu steigern.


Potenziale von Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing ist eine neue digitale Form der Arbeitsorganisation, bei der Unternehmen über das Internet auf das Wissen, die Kreativität und die Arbeitskraft einer grossen Masse an Teilnehmern zugreifen können. Bereits heute verlagern führende Unternehmen wie IBM systematisch Jobs in die Crowd, um Effizienz und Effektivität ihrer IT-Entwicklungsprozesse zu steigern.

  • Workforce-as-a-Service: Flexibler On·Demand-Zugriff auf grossen Pool an Arbeitskräften
  • Nutzung des .Wisdom of Crowds”: Entwicklung innovativer Lösungsansätze und Angebote bei der Softwareentwicklung
  • Reduktion von Entwicklungskosten und -zeiten
  • Erhöhung der Marktakzeptanz durch Mitwirkung von (potentiellen) Kunden
  • Konzentration auf Kernkompetenzen durch Auslagerung von “Randaufgaben”
  • Employer Branding für Digital Natives

Schwerpunkt

Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding hat sich in den letzten Jahren als innovative, transparente und demokratische Finanzierungsalternative für unterschiedlichste Projekte etabliert. Dabei finanziert eine .Crowd” aus Anlegern einzelne Projekte auf einer Internetplattform. Die Kombination aus der Weisheit der Massen mit einem Mechanismus zur Ressourcen-Allokation bietet dabei zahlreiche Möglichkeiten für den unternehmensinternen und -externen Einsatz. Unternehmensexterne Crowdfunding-Spielarten reichen von altruistischen Plattformen zur Finanzierung gemeinnütziger und karitativer Projekte über hedonistische Plattformen zur Finanzierung kreativer und innovativer Projekte bis hin zu gewinnorientierten Plattformen zur Kreditvermittlung oder Gewinnbeteiligungen an Start-Up Unternehmen. Damit stellt Crowdfunding eine attraktive Möglichkeit für traditionelle Finanzdienstleister, wie z.B. Banken, zur Erschliessung von Nischenmärkten innerhalb der Finanzindustrie dar. Des Weiteren bietet Crowdfunding zahlreiche unternehmensinterne Einsatzmöglichkeiten, wie z.B. die Restrukturierung von z.B. Vertriebsprozessen, der Budgetverteilung, der Abschätzung des Marktpotenzials eines Produktes sowie der Unterstützung von Auswahlentscheidungen.

Wir unterstützen Unternehmen dabei unternehmensinterne und -externe Einsatzbereiche für Crowdfunding zu identifizieren sowie Crowdfunding-Dienstleistungen und entsprechende Crowdfunding-Plattformen zu entwickeln. Darüber hinaus steht die Erforschung von grundlegenden Funktions- und Wirkungsweisen von Crowdfunding im Kern unserer Forschung. Neben wissenschaftlichen Artikeln in weltweit führenden Fachzeitschriften und Konferenzen publizieren wir regelmässig eigene Crowdfunding-Studien für den sich äusserst dynamischen entwickelnden Crowdfunding-Markt.

Crowd Work – Arbeiten in der Wolke

Crowd Work ist in den letzten Jahren für viele Unternehmen eine Alternative zur Aufgabenbearbeitung geworden. Bei Crowd Work handelt es sich insofern um ein innovatives Konzept zur Verteilung und Durchführung von Unternehmensaufgaben, im Kontext dessen nicht nur – wie im klassischen Sinne – funktions-Abteilungsinterne bzw. unternehmensinterne, sondern partout funktions übergreifende und auch unternehmens externe Individuen bzw. Arbeiter im Leistungserstellungsprozess involviert werden können. Folglich stellt dieses Konzept eine gänzlich neue Art der Arbeitsorganisation dar.

Vor dem Hintergrund helfen wir bei der Definition, Organisation und Gestaltung von „Arbeit in der Crowd“ in Unternehmen. Im Rahmen verschiedener Projekte haben wir untersucht, wie Crowdsourcing explizit von Unternehmen angewandt werden kann.

Es stehen hierbei prinzipiell zwei Arten von Crowd Work für Unternehmen zur Verfügung:

Internal Crowd Work: Bezeichnet die Ausschreibung, Ausarbeitung und Lösung von unternehmensinternen aufgaben durch eigene Mitarbeiter. Der Unterschied zu normaler Arbeitsverteilung liegt in der freiwilligen und rein interessengetriebenen Beteiligung der Mitarbeiter an dieser Arbeitsform. Mögliche Einsatzbereiche sind hier in unternehmssensitiven Aufgaben und Aufgaben mit erforderlichem speziellem Fachwissen.

External Crowd Work:  Bezeichnet die Einbindung von externen Arbeitern, die entweder unbezahlt oder bezahlt Aufgaben für Unternehmen übernehmen. Mögliche Einsatzbereiche sind hier in der Softwareentwicklung, Ideengenerierung und in der Erledigung von Micro Tasks (Arbeiten unter 10min bzw. ohne spezielles Fachwissen oder Erfahrung).

Publikationen

Crowd work reflects a new form of gainful employment on the Internet. We study how the nature of the tasks being performed and financial compensation jointly shape work perceptions of crowdworkers in order to better understand the changing modes and patterns of digital work. Surveying individuals on 23 German crowd working platforms, this work is the first to add a multi-platform perspective on perceived working conditions in crowd work. We show that crowd workers need rather high levels of financial compensation before task characteristics become relevant for shaping favorable perceptions of working conditions. We explain these results by considering financial compensation as an informational cue indicating the appreciation of working effort that is internalized by well-paid crowd workers. Resulting boundary conditions for task design are discussed. These results help us understand when and under what conditions crowd work can be regarded as a fulfilling type of employment in highly developed countries.

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get_appIvo Blohm, Shkodran Zogaj, Ulrich Bretschneider, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Crowdsourced tasks are very diverse – and so are platform types. They fall into four categories, each demanding different governance mechanisms. The main goal of microtasking crowdsourcing platforms is the scalable and time-efficient batch processing of highly repetitive tasks. Crowdsourcing platforms for information pooling aggregate contributions such as votes, opinions, assessments and forecasts through approaches such as averaging, summation, or visualization. Broadcast search platforms collect contributions to solve tasks in order to gain alternative insights and solutions from people outside the organization, and are particularly suited for solving challenging technical, analytical, scientific, or creative problems. Open collaboration platforms invite contributors to team up to jointly solve complex problems in cases where solutions require the integration of distributed knowledge and the skills of many contributors. Companies establishing crowdsourcing platforms of any type should continuously monitor and adjust their governance mechanisms. Quality and quantity of contributions, project runtime, or the effort for conducting the crowdsourcing project may be good starting points.

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While the crowdsourcer’s job is to encourage valuable contributions and sustained commitment in a cost-effective manner, it seems as if the primary attention of management and research is still centered on the evaluation of contributions rather than the crowd. As many crowdsourcers lack the resources to successfully execute such projects, crowdsourcing intermediaries play an increasingly important role. First studies dealt with internal management challenges of incorporating an intermediary. However, the issue of how intermediaries influence crowdsourcees’ psychological and behavioral responses, further referred to as engagement, has not been addressed yet. Consequently, two leading research questions guide this paper: (1) How can the engagement process of crowdsourcees be conceptualized? (2) How and why do crowdsourcing intermediaries impact crowdsourcees’ engagement? This study extends existing knowledge by offering IS-researchers a process perspective on engagement and exploring the underlying mechanisms and IT-enabled stimuli that foster value-creation in a mediated and non-mediated setting. A theoretical process model is first conceptualized and then explored with insights from two common cases in the growing field of crowd testing. By triangulating platform and interview data, initial propositions concerning the role of specific stimuli and the intermediary within the engagement process are derived. It is proposed that crowdsourcing enterprises, incorporating intermediaries, have the potential to generate a desired engagement state when perceived stimuli under their control belong to the so-called group of “game changers” and “value adders”, while the intermediary controls mainly “risk factors” for absorbing negative experiences. Apart from the theoretical relevance of studying mediated engagement processes and explaining voluntary use and participation in a socio-technical system, findings support decisions on how to effectively incorporate platform intermediaries.

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Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
To profit from crowdsourcing, organizations can engage in four different approaches: microtasking, information pooling, broadcast search, and open collaboration. This article presents 21 governance mechanisms that can help organizations manage their crowdsourcing platforms. It investigates the effectiveness of these governance mechanisms in 19 case studies and recommends specific configurations of these mechanisms for each of the four crowdsourcing approaches. Also, it offers guidance to organizations that host a crowdsourcing platform by providing recommendations for implementing governance mechanisms into their platforms and building up governance capabilities for crowdsourcing.

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Crowdfunding represents a disruptive innovation in the banking industry by enabling the exploitation of market segments. Incumbents struggle to utilize this new phenomenon as crowdfunding is based on modules that have not been considered relevant for banking so far. Nevertheless, crowdfunding services are not entirely new compared to traditional banking. We argue that the modular design enables a bank to utilize crowdfunding. Thus, we started an action research project in order to investigate how modularization enables a bank to design crowdfunding services. Findings so far led to the identification of eleven preliminary crowdfunding services and their interconnection within an ecosystem. Our expected contribution will increase the understanding of crowdfunding services by bridging research on modularization, service ecosystems, and crowdfunding, and highlight the handling of disruptive innovations in an established industry. For practice, we provide a way of designing crowdfunding services in an efficient manner while building on already existing competencies.

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The remarkable growth of crowdfunding has sparked academic interest. By collecting small contributions from a large number of individuals, entrepreneurs, artists and other individuals and organizations can raise considerable amounts of money. Despite the increasing academic interest in this topic, there still appears to be a lack of understanding regarding the factors that determine individuals' intentions to contribute to projects. In this research-in-progress paper, we propose a research model that examines future funding intentions by using Expectation-Disconfirmation Theory (EDT). By applying our research model to reward-based crowdfunding, we intend to shed light on the ways in which previous funding experiences influence future funding intentions. Through the data collected by this study, our research will contribute to the body of literature on reward-based crowdfunding and EDT. It will also provide practical implications for crowdfunding platforms and project initiators, providing them indications for their management of expectations.

Mehr
Crowdfunding (CF) is gaining much attention in theory and practice. Various platforms have emerged, offering the possibility to raise money from an undefined group of online users. Despite the growing interest, there appears to be little understanding of what influences backers funding behavior as well as their intention to return to a CF-platform. Due to the analogies of e-commerce and reward- based CF, we address this issue by drawing on e-commerce theory, mainly online-product- presentation. It was proven that online-product-presentation is a successful influencing factor on consumer's behavior. Based on this, we aim at developing a theory ingrained research model to analyze and understand the impact of online-product-presentation elements on funding and returning behavior of backers in reward-based CF. Our research is the first empirical attempt to investigate these effects in the context of reward-based CF. Doing so, our research contributes to the body of online-product- presentation theory by applying it into a new context. The results have practical implications for effective product presentations in reward-based CF. It helps crowdfunding intermediaries and individuals to understand the importance of online-product-presentation, and provides them with actionable ad- vice on how to handle them on, among others, platform design and online product promotion.

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Crowdfunding has become a viable source of funding for a variety of projects during the last years. More and more music, creative and artistic but al-so entrepreneurial projects search funding through the crowd. Although first project characteristics with an impact on a project's funding success have been identified, qualitative variables within crowdfunding projects have mostly remained uncovered. With that in mind, this paper empirically examines the influence of idea creativity and hedonic value on projects' funding success. We assessed 108 projects from 20 platforms in order to measure the extent of these two dimensions. Our broad approach allowed us to compare results for the different types of crowdfunding. We find that idea creativity and hedonic value can have varying impacts on projects' funding success depending on the type of crowdfunding.

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Virtual idea communities (VICs) such as Dell's 'Ideastorm' are very popular in practice. In VICs, customers of firms can submit ideas to support product innovation. This customer-based ideation is not new. Customers have been brought together in lead-user-workshops or focus-groups since the 1980s to support product innovation. However, VICs represents a new form of IT-mediated ideation with customers. While extant research has provided insights into customers' motives for participating in traditional ideation, we know little about the motivations that drive customer participation in this new form of IT-enabled ideation. Based on a survey of customer motivations for participation, we found evidence for motives that arise directly due to the VIC's IT-ability to support visualisation of customer ideas, to give feedback on ideas, and to support customers' social interactions. As a result, VICs are perceived as a way to demonstrate personal capabilities, for getting recognition, and for facilitating social interaction.

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Das Buch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Wirtschaftsinformatik. Aufbauend auf den bewährten Vorgängerauflagen von Stahlknecht und Hasenkamp wurde die 12. Auflage komplett überarbeitet, strukturell weiterentwickelt und aktualisiert. Die Schwerpunkte umfassen u.a. Systemplattformen, (Hardware, Betriebssysteme), Kommunikationssysteme, Datenbanken, Systementwicklung, IT-Anwendungssysteme, IT-Management und Digital Business.

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