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Öffentlich geförderte Forschungsprojekte

Understanding and Designing User Trust in Smart Personal Assistants

Im vom SNF geförderten Projekt „Understanding and Designing User Trust in Smart Personal Assistants“ untersucht das Team von Prof. Dr. Leimeister welche Auswirkungen intelligente, dialogorientierte Systeme und ihre individuellen Designmerkmale auf Nutzer und Vertrauen haben. Das Projekt zielt darauf ab, Theorien und Methoden aus der Designforschung, der Verhaltenswissenschaft und anderen Disziplinen zusammenzuführen, um den Einsatz und die Effekte von Dialog-KI zu verstehen.

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Verbindung künstlicher und kollektiver Intelligenz zur Entwicklung skalierbarer Software Testing Lösungen

"Software is eating the world" - Aber wie stellt man sicher, dass diese Software auch benutzerfreundlich ist und richtig funktioniert? Ziel des Projekts ist es, selbstlernende Textanalyse-Algorithmen zu entwickeln und zu untersuchen, inwieweit diese künstliche Intelligenz beim Softwaretest in Unternehmen wirtschaftlich vorteilhaft und sinnvoll eingesetzt werden kann.

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Are Two Better than One?

Das Konzept der Hybriden Intelligenz gewinnt zunehmend an Popularität (Horvitz 2014). Dieses Konzept zielt darauf ab, die komplementären Stärken von menschlicher Intelligenz und KI zu nutzen, um sich intelligenter zu verhalten, als es jede der beiden für sich genommen sein könnte (Kamar 2016). Die Integration von menschlichem Input in die künstliche Intelligenz bringt jedoch Herausforderungen mit sich, da insbesondere die menschliche Intelligenz nur dann integriert werden kann, wenn bestimmte organisatorische Randbedingungen adäquat berücksichtigt werden (Kamar 2016). Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Grundlagenforschungsfondsprojekts wird daher untersucht welche Auswirkungen der Einsatz hybrider Intelligenz auf die Performanz sozio-technischer Systeme hat.

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Design Principles for Service Systems in the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT)–understood as digitizing and connecting the physical world and its objects–uses a multitude of technologies to bring along many technical advancements. Overall, IoT is expected to have tremendous economic impact in the nearer future and to affect all sectors and settings of our business and private lives, e.g. in manufacturing, smart cities, healthcare, etc. Thereby, the value IoT systems can deliver depends on the services they can offer to users and customers. To leverage the potentials of IoT and its technical feasibility and superiority, not only the purely technological connectedness of things, but also the interplay and design of interfaces between IoT and people are crucial, i.e. people, software and hardware need to be orchestrated.To realize this interplay between IoT hardware, IoT software and people, all need to be integrated into existing value networks, e.g. patients and physicians need to be an integral part when designing IoT systems for medication adherence. While current research mainly focuses on empirically analyzing IoT systems and its effects, research concentrating on design knowledge for IoT systems is missing. The project wants to close this research gap and extend the existing body of knowledge by generating design knowledge for this highly promising area. To describe the involved stakeholders and technologies of IoT systems, the concept of service systems is used and a sociotechnical system’s perspective is taken. Service systems are defined as value-co-creation configurations of people, technology and value propositions, e.g. patients and their relatives, physicians and care personnel as the involved “people” who are “co-creating value” by working together to improve the patient’s quality of life while using “technology” such as IoT devices or infrastructures.

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How does crowdsourcing support digital value creation?

Crowdsourcing spiegelt eine innovative Lösung für den kommenden Mangel an IT-Personal wider. Es befähigt Organisationen, die Kreativität, das Wissen und die verteilte Arbeitskraft von Millionen von Menschen anzuzapfen und charakterisiert eine neue Art der Organisation menschlicher Arbeit. Dieses GFF-Projekt entwickelt theoretische Erkenntnisse, die erklären, wann Crowdsourcing eine effektive Art der Wertschöpfung ist und wie Organisationen Crowdsourcing effektiv organisieren und verwalten können.

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ActGo-Gate: Active Retiree and Golden Workers Gate

Das Projekt ActGo-Gate hat die Gestaltung einer integrierten Plattform für IKT-gestützte Dienstleistungen zur Nachbarschafts-Assistenz und -Pflege und zur Koordination von Freiwilligenarbeit mit professionellen Dienstleistern und (Non-Profit-) Organisationen im Fokus.

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Enhancing Student Performance Through Formative Feedback in Large Scale University Lectures (SNF Doc Mobility)

In einer 10. Klasse des Gymnasiums und einer Berufsschulklasse bearbeitete eine Gruppe die Aufgaben mit Hilfe eines Smart Personal Assistants, die andere Gruppe mit “traditionellen” Methoden. Die empirischen Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die Schüler in den Experimentierklassen signifikant mehr Problemlösungskompetenzen erwarben als die Schüler in den Kontrollklassen und sich die Lernprozesse veränderten. Die Ergebnisse liefern erste empirische Belege für den Wert des Einsatzes von Smart Personal Assistants wie z.B. Alexa auf die Fähigkeiten zum Lösen von Problemen.

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Transformation of Work Through Internal Crowdsourcing

Die Digitalisierung verändert Märkte und Organisationen grundlegend. Um in einem schnelllebigen und unsicheren Umfeld bestehen zu können, suchen Organisationen nach Möglichkeiten, flexibler und produktiver zu werden. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, können Organisationen das Konzept des internen Crowdsourcings nutzen, um ihre Mitarbeiter über digitale Plattformen mittels offener Ausschreibungen für temporäre Arbeitseinsätze neu zu besetzen.

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Improving the Argumentation Skills of Students through Machine Learning

In dem HSG-intern geförderten Projekt untersuchen wir, wie wir Studierende eine individuelle Schreibunterstützung basierend auf Techniken des Maschinellen Lernens und Natural Language Processing bieten können. Ziel der Projektes ist es, Argumentationsfähigkeiten von Studierenden in Massen- und Distanzlehrveranstaltungen zu verbessern und damit zur Unterstützung von Meta-Kognitions-Fähigkeiten beizutragen.

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Evaluating the Effectiveness of Digital Formative Learning Assessments in University Large Scale Lectures

Wie trägt eine digitale formative Lernkontrolle in grossen Vorlesungen zum Lernprozess der Studierenden bei und wie beeinflusst sie die Lernergebnisse der Studierenden?

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Projekte am IWI

SCESC (Swiss Circular Economy of Skills and Competences)

Dieses Projekt fördert eine noch nie dagewesene Lernerfahrung für Weiterbildende, welche mit Hilfe einer Plattform nach dem Modell der Kreislaufwirtschaft ganzheitlich unterstützt werden sollen. Die Ziele dieses Projekts sind unter anderem die Förderung des aktuellen und mittelfristigen Qualifikationsbedarfs, die volle Ausschöpfung des Kompetenzportfolios des*r Weiterbildenden, das mit Hilfe eines kontinuierlichen Abgleichs von individuellem Qualifikationsbedarf und Weiterbildungsmöglichkeiten realisiert wird, sowie die Unterstützung der individuellen Kompetenzentwicklung durch einen digitalen Coach. Das Projekt ist auf dreieinhalb Jahre ausgerichtet mit Beginn im Februar 2022 und Fertigstellung im Sommer 2025.

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St.Gallen Digital Business Innovation Approach

Der Nutzer entscheidet ob ein Produkt, eine Dienstleistung oder ein neues Geschäftsmodell erfolgreich ist. Der St. Galler Digitial Business Innovation Ansatz ist eine human-zentrische Methode, die zum Ziel hat innovative Produkte, Dienstleistung und Geschäftsmodelle zu entwickeln, welche zugleich die Bedürfnisse der Kunden bestmöglich adressieren sowie wirtschaftlichen Wert für das Unternehmen maximieren. Der iterative Prozess gibt Führung, wie vom Nutzerbedürfnis ausgehend über eine erweiterte Marktbetrachtung hin zur Geschäftsmodellentwicklung innovative Lösungen für komplexe Kundenprobleme generiert werden können.

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IoT Studie

Unsere aktuellen Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, dass das IoT für viele Unternehmen in erster Linie kein technisches Thema oder zumindest primär keine technologische Herausforderung darstellt und sein darf. Es dreht sich alles um neue Geschäftsmodelle und Wertpotenziale. Es geht um mehr als reine Automatisierung, es geht um strategische Vorteile, Partnerschaften, und service-orientierten Kundenfokus.

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Innovation durch Kooperation

IT-Tool zur systematischen Analyse & Bearbeitung von Kooperationsanfragen

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IS Architecture

This project investigates IS architecture from two distinctive, but interrelated perspectives. While the first part of the project employs a static approach to explain which institutional factors underlie desirable outcomes for IS architecture, the second part opts for a dynamic approach to explain how IS architecture evolves over time. This project combines both static and dynamic explanations to triangulate the generated theories on IS architecture.

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Architectural Thinking

Architectural thinking aims at supporting non-architects and people outside the IT function to adopt holistic, long-term considerations in their daily decisions. To establish architectural thinking we build small interventions such as labels for applications, domains or projects to increase the awareness of employees for architectural goals and provide opportunities to contribute to the goal achievement.

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Nudging for Data Quality

Many organizations struggle with creating and maintaining data quality in their everyday business. Beyond formal means of control, such as data governance frameworks comprising rules, regulations or regular data quality reviews, in this project we explore lightweight interventions that nudge people in the organization to spend a little more effort here and there, which overall measurable increases the understanding for data quality and data quality itself.

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FRS (Feedback Recommender System)

Das Ziel des Projekts ist die Durchführung eines Experiments, das messen soll, wie Menschen in agilen Arbeitssituationen Feedback verarbeiten. Im Weiteren wird ein d IT-Tool entwickelt,  welches individualisierte Verbesserungsvorschläge beim Schreiben von Feedback gibt.

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Loom

LOOM (Learning Objective and Outcome Manager) ist ein IT-Tool welches durch den Einsatz von modernsten Text-Mining Algorithmen und Computer basiertes Assessment, Studierenden semesterbegleitendes Feedback ermöglicht. Dies unterstützt die nachhaltige Entwicklung von Skills und meta-kognitiven Fähigkeiten wie selbst-reguliertes lernen.

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ArgueLearn

Unser IT-Tool "ArgueLearn" bietet eine individuelle Schreibunterstützung basierend auf Techniken des Maschinellen Lernens und Natural Language Processing mit dem Ziel, die Argumentationsfähigkeiten von Studierenden in Massen- und Distanzlehrveranstaltungen zu verbessern.

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Design Principles for Service Systems in the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT)–understood as digitizing and connecting the physical world and its objects–uses a multitude of technologies to bring along many technical advancements. Overall, IoT is expected to have tremendous economic impact in the nearer future and to affect all sectors and settings of our business and private lives, e.g. in manufacturing, smart cities, healthcare, etc. Thereby, the value IoT systems can deliver depends on the services they can offer to users and customers. To leverage the potentials of IoT and its technical feasibility and superiority, not only the purely technological connectedness of things, but also the interplay and design of interfaces between IoT and people are crucial, i.e. people, software and hardware need to be orchestrated.To realize this interplay between IoT hardware, IoT software and people, all need to be integrated into existing value networks, e.g. patients and physicians need to be an integral part when designing IoT systems for medication adherence. While current research mainly focuses on empirically analyzing IoT systems and its effects, research concentrating on design knowledge for IoT systems is missing. The project wants to close this research gap and extend the existing body of knowledge by generating design knowledge for this highly promising area. To describe the involved stakeholders and technologies of IoT systems, the concept of service systems is used and a sociotechnical system’s perspective is taken. Service systems are defined as value-co-creation configurations of people, technology and value propositions, e.g. patients and their relatives, physicians and care personnel as the involved “people” who are “co-creating value” by working together to improve the patient’s quality of life while using “technology” such as IoT devices or infrastructures.

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ActGo-Gate: Active Retiree and Golden Workers Gate

Das Projekt ActGo-Gate hat die Gestaltung einer integrierten Plattform für IKT-gestützte Dienstleistungen zur Nachbarschafts-Assistenz und -Pflege und zur Koordination von Freiwilligenarbeit mit professionellen Dienstleistern und (Non-Profit-) Organisationen im Fokus.

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aktuellste Publikationen

Design Science Research (DSR) is a pragmatic, utility-oriented, scientific approach to solving relevant Information Technology (IT) and Information Systems (IS) related organisational problems. It represents one of two essential paradigms in IS research, and its research output is not descriptive but prescriptive. It instructs about how gen-eral problems of the same class can be solved. Research projects in DSR (i.e., design research projects) involve many stakeholders from research and practice. They are iterative, lengthy, and complex, combining the roams of theory (ensuring rigour by using existing knowledge) and practice (ensuring relevance by actively integrating the stakeholders of the problem in the research process). At the same time, such re-search contributes both to research (through the identification of prescriptive means-end relationships) and to practice (providing instructions to solve practical organisa-tional problems). This very brief summary of DSR already makes one thing evident: Design research project communication is essential for this kind of research. Poor communication leads to inefficient exchange with practice, rejected research articles, slow accumula-tion of knowledge, or low practical impact of IS research. Another aspect that is re-vealed is that these projects are likely to be complicated to communicate (causes in-clude, e.g., lengthiness, multi-stakeholder involvement, practitioner and academic audiences, addressing problem classes rather than problem instances). This problem has been recognised in various instances (e.g., writing of design research articles for academic journals), but existing support on how to communicate is ineffective, as many perceive the communication of design research projects to be a problem. This dissertation addresses that. Employing DSR as the overarching research methodology, the presented research in this dissertation provides a solution that guides design researchers in general commu-nication of their projects (DSR communication framework), in writing design re-search articles (a process with prescriptive instructions for each step), and in present-ing DSR research designs (a checklist for effective DSR research design presentation, e.g., in the context of a research methods course). These artefacts (DSR contribu-tions) are both built and evaluated based on empirical studies. This research thus of-fers a solution to the research problem. It furthermore puts a new topic of research on the map: DSR communication.

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Kognitive Automation geht über die regelbasierte Geschäftsprozessautomation hinaus und zielt auf kognitive Wissens- und Dienstleistungsarbeit ab. Dies ermöglicht die Automatisierung von Aufgaben und Prozessen, die noch vor einem Jahrzehnt unvorstellbar schien. Sie hat somit das Potenzial, Front- und Backoffices in ähnlicher Weise zu beeinflussen wie physische Roboter bei Produktionsanlagen. Kognitive Automatisierung stellt Unternehmen jedoch vor neue Herausforderungen bei der Entscheidung über das Automatisierungspotenzial von Anwendungsfällen, was zu einer geringen Akzeptanz und hohen Misserfolgsraten entsprechender Projekte führt. Hinzu kommt der trans- und interdisziplinäre Charakter des Phänomens der kognitiven Automation, der dazu führt, dass es in Forschung und Praxis an einem gemeinsamen Verständnis und einer einheitlichen Terminologie fehlt, um dieses Feld voranzutreiben. Vor diesem Hintergrund verfolgt diese Dissertation das Ziel, Organisationen in die Lage zu versetzen, strukturierter und fundierter zu entscheiden, ob eine Aufgabe oder ein Prozess für kognitive Automation geeignet ist und wie diese Erkenntnisse in entsprechende Projektanforderungen übersetzt werden können. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, folgt die Dissertation einem qualitativen, sozialkonstruktivistischen Paradigma, das auf systematischen Literaturrecherchen, Interviews, Fokusgruppen, Fallstudien, Aktionsforschung und gestaltungsorientierter Forschung basiert. Zunächst konzeptualisiere ich in meiner Dissertation die unterschiedlichen Perspektiven der kognitiven Automation, um ein repräsentatives Bild des Phänomens und seiner unterstützenden Technologien zu zeichnen. Die ganzheitliche Konzeptualisierung dient als Grundlage, auf der zukünftige Forschung aufbauen kann und ebnet den Weg für eine tiefgreifendere konzeptionelle Konvergenz in diesem Feld. Zweitens entwickle und teste ich ein Modell zur Bewertung von Anwendungsfällen kognitiver Automation. Das Modell soll Unternehmen helfen, fundiertere Entscheidungen bei der Auswahl von Anwendungsfällen für kognitive Automation und der Planung dieser Initiativen zu treffen. Aus Forschungssicht werden die identifizierten Determinanten unser Verständnis von kognitiver Automation und von Künstlicher Intelligenz als deren treibende Kraft vertiefen. Drittens bette ich das Modell in eine Methode ein, um es in die Praxis zu übertragen. Dabei erweitere ich die Frage, «welche» Faktoren bei der Bewertung der Eignung von Anwendungsfällen zu berücksichtigen sind, um die Frage, «wie» diese Bewertung im Sinne reproduzierbarer Managementpraktiken durchgeführt werden soll. Ich ergänze die Methode um eine Reihe allgemeiner Projektmanagement-Praktiken für Künstliche Intelligenz, die helfen nach der Bewertung von Anwendungsfällen Projektimplikationen für kognitive Automatisierungsprojekte abzuleiten.

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Todays organizations have to continuously transform themselves to survive in the rapidly changing environment. In particular, continuous, rapid developments of digital technologies are key drivers of these changes. They leave hardly any organization, even organizations with long traditions, unaffected. The resulting urge to progress with digital transformation has motivated many organizations to set up large-scale, enterprise-wide programs. However, successfully realizing these programs is far from an easy task. While program management as a discipline has significantly matured over the previous years, increasing the understanding of and improving program governance to ensure direction, coordination, and control of joint objectives in programs, has been neglected in both theory and practice. This dissertation studies governance in digital transformation programs. Firstly, it investigates the importance of program governance as a means of ensuring program success. Secondly, it studies the current shortcomings of program governance in the context of the concurrence of opposing agile and traditional management approaches within programs and in the context of the concurrence of opposing local and global interests of involved stakeholders. Thirdly, it provides insights into possible improvements and further developments of program governance based on tension theory. To gain rich empirical insights, all papers of this dissertation are based on a qualitative research approach. The dissertation is of value for researchers and practitioners: The findings of the papers constituting this dissertation contribute to a better understanding of why governance is important to successfully progress with digital transformation endeavors and how it can be improved through ensuring both context- and tension-awareness. This dissertation lays the foundation to further investigate and develop governance practice in temporary organizations set up to progress with enterprise-wide digital transformation.

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Die Fähigkeit, überzeugende Argumente zu formulieren, ist nicht nur von grundlegender Bedeutung, um ein Publikum von neuen Ideen zu überzeugen, sondern spielt auch eine wichtige Rolle bei strategischen Entscheidungsfindungen, bei Verhandlungen und im allgemeinen politischen Diskurs. Menschen haben jedoch oft Schwierigkeiten, Argumentationsfähigkeiten zu entwickeln. Ein Grund dafür ist der Mangel an individuellem und formativem Feedback im Lernprozess von Studierenden oder in der Aus-und Weiterbildung. Eine Rückmeldung über den Stand der individuellen Argumentationsfähigkeiten von Lernenden ist zeitaufwändig und für Lehrkräfte nicht skalierbar. Neuartige adaptive Argu-mentationslernsysteme haben das Potential, Studierende zu unterstützen selbstständig und unabhängig von Lehrkräften, Zeit und Ort zu lernen. Obwohl der Einsatz von Künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) ein vielversprechender Ansatz zu sein scheint, fehlt es in der aktuellen Literatur (1) an Erkenntnissen über die theoriebasierten und lernerzentrierten Anforderungen an Lernen von Argumentationsfähigkeiten mit adaptiven Lerntools, (2) an Wissen darüber wie KI-basierte adaptive Argumentationslernsysteme konzipiert und gebaut werden können, um die individuellen Lernpfade und die Nutzung der Studierenden zu verbessern und (3) an Erkenntnissen über den Einfluss adaptiver Argumentationslernsysteme auf die eigentlichen Argumentationsfähigkeiten der Studierenden.Diese Dissertation greift diese drei Forschungslücken auf und untersucht das Potential von adaptivem Lernen von Argumentationsfähigkeiten mit Hilfe von KI. Dazu werden neue technologiegestützte pädagogische Konzepte entworfen, implementiert und evaluiert, die Studierende aktiv unterstützen, strukturiert, logisch und reflektiert zu argumentieren. Auf Basis eines designwissenschaftlichen Forschungsansatzes entwickle ich neue studierenden-zentrierte pädagogische Szenarien mit empirisch evaluierten Designprinzipien, linguistischen Korpora, ML-Algorithmen und innovativen Lernwerkzeugen. Ich stelle dazu zwei neuartige Klassen von IT-basierten Lernwerkzeugen für das Argumentieren vor: (1) KI-basierte Systeme zur Unterstützung des Schreibens von Argumenten und (2) dialog-basierte Argumentationslernsysteme. Meine Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die beiden neuen Systemklassen den Studierenden helfen bessere Argumentationsfähigkeiten in verschiedenen pädagogischen Bereichen zu entwickeln. Dabei überbrücke ich erstmals die Grenzen von Argumentationslernen und Argumentation Mining, indem ich neue pädagogische Szenarien für adaptives Argumentationslernen aus einer studierendenzentrierten Perspektive untersuche. Daher trägt diese Arbeit nicht nur mit neuen, reichhaltigen Argumentationsannotationsschemata, Argumentationskorpora und neuartigen ML-Modellen in deutscher Sprache bei, sondern vor allem mit Einblicken in die allgemeine sozio-technische Einbettung, das Design und die Auswirkungen von KI-basierten Argumentationslernsysteme, um Lernenden zu helfen besser zu argumentieren.

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Innovation is one of the most important antecedents of a company's competitive advantage and long-term survival. Prior research has alluded to teamwork being a primary driver of a firm's innovation capacity. Still, many firms struggle with providing an environment that supports innovation teams in working efficiently together. Thereby, a team's failure can be attributed to several factors, such as inefficient working methods or a lack of internal communication that leads to so-called innovation blockages. There are a number of approaches that are targeted at supporting teams to overcome innovation blockages, but they mainly focus on the collaboration process and rarely consider the needs and potentials of individual team members. In this paper, we argue that Conversational Agents (CAs) can efficiently support teams in overcoming innovation blockages by enhancing collaborative work practices and, specifically, by facilitating the contribution of each individual team member. To that end, we design a CA as a team facilitator that provides nudges to reduce innovation blocking actions according to requirements we systematically derived from scientific literature and practice. Based on a rigorous evaluation, we demonstrate the potential of CAs to reduce the frequency of innovation blockages. The research implications for the development and deployment of CAs as team facilitators are explored.

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Voice assistants’ (VAs) increasingly nuanced and natural communication opens up new opportunities for the experience of users, providing task assistance and automation possibilities, and also offer an easy interface to digital services and ecosystems. However, VAs face various problems, such as low adoption and satisfaction rates as well as other negative reactions from users. Companies, therefore, need to consider how individuals utilize VAs and what contributes to user satisfaction. Key for the design of VAs are their unique affordances and their agentic nature that distinguish these IT artifacts from non-agentic IS. A configurative and dynamic approach enables to shed light on the complex causalities underlying user outcomes with these novel systems. Consequently, we examine in this study how individuals actualize the affordances of VAs during the initial adoption stage. For this purpose, we draw on a diary study research design that examines affordance actualization processes with new VA users. We examine with a configurational approach, how the actualization of VA affordances contributes to the outcomes of VAs, i.e., in our case user satisfaction. The results of our diary study show distinct patterns of functional affordance configurations. In addition, we show that affordances unfold and evolve over time. The derived implications provide a configurative theoretical understanding for the role of VAs affordances for user satisfaction that provides practitioners useful guidance to actualize the potential of VAs.

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Agile work organization has experienced a significant increase in acceptance in recent years. However, literature falls short in explaining the transformation process that results from the implementation of agile work organization as a means of achieving increased adaptability, rate of speed and flexibility. We apply a process ontology to agile work organization by following three multinational firms that apply agile work organization, utilizing a case study approach over three years. At the macro level, our theory describes the transformation process set in motion by agile work organization as a three-phase process. At the micro level, we show that this transformation process is driven by specific design decisions on individual elements. Thus, our process theory contributes to a better understanding of agile work organization as a means to achieve organizational agility and to STS theory by showing that the emergence and constitution of STS are mainly driven by micro-level processes.

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get_appRoman Rietsche, Christian Dremel, Samuel Bosch, Léa Steinacker, Miriam Meckel, Jan Marco Leimeister
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Quantum computing promises to be the next disruptive technology, with numerous possible applications and implications for organizations and markets. Quantum computers exploit principles of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and entanglement, to represent data and perform operations on them. Both of these principles enable quantum computers to solve very specific, complex problems significantly faster than standard computers. Against this backdrop, this fundamental gives a brief overview of the three layers of a quantum computer: hardware, system software, and application layer. Furthermore, we introduce potential application areas of quantum computing and possible research directions for the field of information systems.

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) shows great potential to tackle environmental sustainability issues that are critical to the survival of Humanity and Planet Earth. However, the development and use of AI causes indirect emissions leading to detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, it is important for organizations, researchers, and practitioners in the Information Systems (IS) domain to understand both the positive and negative effects of AI on the environment. This article contributes to this topic by performing a theoretical review of the literature at the intersection of AI and Sustainability to determine the current research streams. Further, this article adopts the affordance theory as a theoretical lens with the goal to identify the affordances of Sustainable AI – a field that encompasses the research areas ‘AI for Sustainability as well as ‘Sustainability of AI’ – in the Green IS community. The identified affordances would enable researchers and practitioners to design and use Sustainable AI systems.

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Background: Investigating ways to improve well-being in everyday situations as a means of fostering mental health has gained substantial interest in recent years. For many people, the daily commute by car is a particularly straining situation of the day, and thus researchers have already designed various in-vehicle well-being interventions for a better commuting experience. Current research has validated such interventions but is limited to isolating effects in controlled experiments that are generally not representative of real-world driving conditions. Objective: The aim of the study is to identify cause--effect relationships between driving behavior and well-being in a real-world setting. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of when to trigger interventions. Methods: We conducted a field study in which we provided a demographically diverse sample of 10 commuters with a car for daily driving over a period of 4 months. Before and after each trip, the drivers had to fill out a questionnaire about their state of well-being, which was operationalized as arousal and valence. We equipped the cars with sensors that recorded driving behavior, such as sudden braking. We also captured trip-dependent factors, such as the length of the drive, and predetermined factors, such as the weather. We conducted a causal analysis based on a causal directed acyclic graph (DAG) to examine cause--effect relationships from the observational data and to isolate the causal chains between the examined variables. We did so by applying the backdoor criterion to the data-based graphical model. The hereby compiled adjustment set was used in a multiple regression to estimate the causal effects between the variables. Results: The causal analysis showed that a higher level of arousal before driving influences driving behavior. Higher arousal reduced the frequency of sudden events (P=.04) as well as the average speed (P=.001), while fostering active steering (P<.001). In turn, more frequent braking (P<.001) increased arousal after the drive, while a longer trip (P<.001) with a higher average speed (P<.001) reduced arousal. The prevalence of sunshine (P<.001) increased arousal and of occupants (P<.001) increased valence (P<.001) before and after driving. Conclusions: The examination of cause--effect relationships unveiled significant interactions between well-being and driving. A low level of predriving arousal impairs driving behavior, which manifests itself in more frequent sudden events and less anticipatory driving. Driving has a stronger effect on arousal than on valence. In particular, monotonous driving situations at high speeds with low cognitive demand increase the risk of the driver becoming tired (low arousal), thus impairing driving behavior. By combining the identified causal chains, states of vulnerability can be inferred that may form the basis for timely delivered interventions to improve well-being while driving.

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Forschungsrat

Der Forschungsrat ist verantwortlich für die generelle Ausrichtung der Forschungsvorhaben am IWI. Diese Verantwortung erstreckt sich auf die Forschungsthemen, die Finanzierung, die Festsetzung der Qualität der zu liefernden Ergebnisse und die teilnehmenden Partnerunternehmen.

Die Mitglieder des Forschungsrates sind erfahrene Führungskräfte und tragen wesentlich zum Erfolg des Forschungsprogramms bei.Für Anfragen an den Forschungsrat und um weitere Informationen zu erhalten, senden Sie bitte ein E-mail an Dr. Philipp Ebel:

Helmut DraxlerBurckhardt Compression AG
Thomas EckertABB
Johan EngvallGeberit
Markus FuhrerPostfinance
Hans-Peter KellerHelsana AG
Andreas MaierAXA-Winterthur
Peter MeyerhansDrees & Sommer
Dr. Anne-Thérèse MorelSwisscom AG
Dr. Robert SchleichRaiffeisen Schweiz
Dr. Jürgen SturmZF Friedrichshafen AG
Urs VetschZurich Insurance Group AG
Thomas VetterGeberit
Stephan WickMigros Bank

Forschungsaufenthalte am Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik

Der persönliche und direkte Austausch über neue Ideen und erste Ergebnisse sind entscheidend für qualitativ hochwertige Forschung. Aus diesem Grund lädt das Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik der Universität St.Gallen Forscher aus aller Welt für einen Forschungsaufenthalt ein, um eigene Projekte voranzutreiben oder neue Projekte gemeinsam mit uns anzustossen. Sowohl Kurzaufenthalte als auch längere Aufenthalte von bis zu acht Wochen sind möglich.

Gastforschern stellen wir ein Büro mit der üblichen IT Infrastruktur zur Verfügung. Ausserdem erhalten unsere Gäste die Möglichkeit ihre Forschung in unserer Vortragsreihe – St.Galler Wirtschaftsinformatik-Forschungskolloquium – zu präsentieren. Falls Sie weitere Informationen benötigen oder sich für einen Forschungsaufenthalt am Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik der Universität St. Gallen interessieren, kontaktieren Sie bitte Professor Dr. Jan Marco Leimeister. Ihre Bewerbungsunterlagen sollten neben einem Lebenslauf auch eine Übersicht über Ihre Forschungs- und Lehreaktivitäten sowie die von Ihnen beabsichtigten Zeiträume für Ihren Aufenthalt beinhalten.








    St. Galler Wirtschaftsinformatik Forschungskolloquium

    2022

    Research Talk Prof. Dr. Kai Spohrer, Associate Professor of Information Systems, Frankfurt School of Finance & Management: “And No One Gets the Short End of the Stick: A Blockchain-Based Approach to Solving the Two-Sided Opportunism Problem in Inter-Organizational Information Sharing”

    14. November 2022

    Standort: IWI-HSG, Müller-Friedbergstrasse 8, 9000 St.Gallen (Raum 52-7024) oder per Zoom

    Datum: 14.11.2022, 14:15 bis 15:30

    Prof. Dr. Kai Spohrer, Associate Professor of Information Systems, Frankfurt School of Finance & Management: “And No One Gets the Short End of the Stick: A Blockchain-Based Approach to Solving the Two-Sided Opportunism Problem in Inter-Organizational Information Sharing”

    The threat of opportunistic behavior is an enduring problem for inter-organizational information sharing. The two sides of opportunism in inter-organizational information sharing – information poaching by the information recipient and information manipulation by the information provider – cause high transaction costs and sometimes preclude information sharing relationships altogether. Existing organizational and technological countermeasures against the two-sided threat of opportunism can either not reliably preclude information poaching and manipulation or address only one of them at a time. We develop four design principles for a blockchain-based system that permits information sharing based on sensitive data in inter-organizational business transactions without revealing the actual data. Thus, our solution simultaneously precludes both information poaching and information manipulation, enabling a novel class of information sharing. We instantiate our design principles in a prototype within a multi-firm research consortium for wear-based leasing contracts for machine tools. An evaluation shows that organizations are willing to engage in more inter-organizational information sharing and draw on more sensitive data when using the proposed prototype compared to traditional inter-organizational information systems. Our study contributes to research on opportunism in inter-organizational information sharing and confidentiality in blockchain networks.

    Kai Spohrer is Associate Professor of Information Systems with the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management. In his research, he applies qualitative and quantitative methods as well as design science to understand and shape the development and use of information systems. He is particularly interested in questions related to collaboration and coordination in information systems development, IT healthcare, and blockchain systems.

    Digital transformations force organizations to develop and maintain innovative digital products and services. Thus, effectively managing these activities and supporting them with appropriate technology at various levels is crucial for organizational success. To support these goals, Kai Spohrer conducts research at several levels, ranging from psychological explanations of biased behavior in AI system users over team-level analyses of software development methods to investigations into the interactions of software architecture and organizational structure in development organizations. His research has appeared and is forthcoming in Information Systems Research, Journal of Management Information Systems, IEEE Transactions of Software Engineering, and others.

    Prior to joining Frankfurt School, Kai Spohrer was Assistant Professor at the Business School of the University of Mannheim where he completed his habilitation on digital innovation in healthcare and the software industry, focusing particularly on agile development, design, and use of information systems. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Mannheim for his dissertation on collaborative quality assurance and team cognition in software development teams. Over the years, he has spent time as a student and visiting researcher at institutions such as the University of Arkansas, Washington State University, and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. He is a founding member and the director of content and media of the AIS special interest group “Advances in Sourcing”.

    Kai Spohrer | LinkedIn

    Prof. Dr. Kai Spohrer | Frankfurt School (frankfurt-school.de)

    Research Talk Prof. Dr. Simon Trang, Assistant Professor, University of Göttingen: “The technology-behavior compensation effect: How beneficial and actively used technologies can counteract their societal goals”

    18. October 2022

    Standort: IWI-HSG, Müller-Friedbergstrasse 8, 9000 St.Gallen (Raum 52-7024) oder per Zoom

    Datum: 18.10.2022, 14:00 bis 15:15

    Prof. Dr. Simon Trang, Assistant Professor, University of Göttingen: “The technology-behavior compensation effect: How beneficial and actively used technologies can counteract their societal goals”

    In search of solutions to societal health challenges, policymakers are increasingly turning to innovative apps as complements to existing non-technological interventions. Such apps developed for supporting users’ health are designed with the premise of being seen as beneficial and actively used. However, based on risk homeostasis theory, we theorize that these two classical design goals for effective information systems (IS) unintentionally foster risk compensation and lead to the neglection of other non-technical preventive health behaviors. Evidence from a multi-wave study regarding COVID-19 contact tracing apps confirms the existence of what we call the technology-risk compensation effect: those individuals who perceived the app to be highly beneficial or actively use it in return reduce other preventive health behaviors such as social distancing after app adoption. This technology-risk compensation effect implicates a hitherto overlooked tension between two established IS design goals and the successful exploitation of technology to support users’ health. We expand the established perspectives on dark sides of IS use by revealing a previously neglected type of unintended consequences and draw attention to the implications of this finding for research well beyond the health context.

    Prof. Dr. Simon Trang holds the Chair for Information Security and Compliance (‘Juniorprofessur’) at the University of Göttingen. The focus of his work concerns the analysis and effective design of information security measures in companies and for a resilient society. He approaches the topic from a socio-technical perspective, in which information systems and information security are not understood as ends in themselves, but always in the interplay of technology, processes and actors. This includes the study of user behavior and psychology, technical, legal as well as strategic aspects. Prof. Trang and his team have received various grants from renowned public institutions such as the BMBF, the BMWK, the BMG and the Volkswagen Foundation. His work has been published in journals such as the Journal of the Association for Information Systems, the European Journal of Information Systems, and Information Systems Frontiers, among others.

    Simon Trang | LinkedIn

    Prof. Dr. Simon Trang – Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (uni-goettingen.de)

    Research Talk Prof. Dr. Jana-Rebecca Rehse, Universität Mannheim: „User Behavior Mining: Applying Process Mining to Analyze Human Behavior Change“

    19. September 2022

    Standort: IWI-HSG, Müller-Friedbergstrasse 8, 9000 St.Gallen (Raum 52-7024) oder per Zoom

    Datum: 19.09.2022, 11:00 bis 12:30

    Prof. Dr. Jana-Rebecca Rehse, Universität Mannheim: „User Behavior Mining: Applying Process Mining to Analyze Human Behavior Change“

    User behavior mining (UBM) refers to the application of process mining and machine learning techniques to user interaction logs, i.e., high-resolution event logs that record low-level, manual activities performed by a user during the execution of a task in a software system. By analyzing these event logs, UBM can generate detailed insights into how users of a software interact with its user interface. Those insights can be used for technical purposes, such as the mitigation of software usability issues or the automation of process execution. In addition, UBM is a valuable tool for researchers who want to understand or predict a specific aspects of user behavior. It provides a data-driven, non-intrusive method to obtain a holistic view on the behavior of software users over a longer period of time. Researchers can hence use UBM to gather and analyze empirical data, which can be used to test, support, refute, or develop behavioral theories.

    In this talk, I present UBM as an analytical method for examining user behavior in software systems. In the first part, I conceptualize it by means of the four-part UBM framework, which elaborates (1) how UBM data can be captured, (2) which technologies can be applied to analyze it, (3) which objectives UBM can accomplish, and (4) how theories can guide the analytical process. In the second part, I show how we applied UBM to analyze behavior changes in a mobile health (mHealth) scenario. Based on social cognitive theory (SCT), we apply process discovery and sequential rule mining to investigate how people interact with mHealth apps and how these interactions affect their physical activity. We find that by applying UBM, we can empirically substantiate implicit assumptions of SCT and derive recommendations for the optimal design of mHealth apps.

    Dr. Jana-Rebecca Rehse is Junior Professor for Management Analytics at the University of Mannheim. Her research focusses on data-driven business process management by means of process mining and machine learning, particularly on methods for process analysis, process assistance and process automation for (business) value. Her research results, funded by the DFG and the BMBF, have been published in more than 40 conference and journal papers so far. From 2015 to 2020, Dr. Rehse was a researcher and project lead at the Institute for Information Systems (IWI) at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) in Saarbrücken. In 2019, she obtained her PhD from Saarland university with a thesis titled “Leveraging Artificial Intelligence for Business Process Management”. Dr. Rehse holds a bachelor’s and master’s degree in business informatics from Saarland University. In 2014, she spent six months as a visiting scholar at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ. USA.

    Jana Rehse | LinkedIn

    Rehse | Universität Mannheim (uni-mannheim.de)

    Research Talk Konstantin Bauman, Ph.D., Ass. Prof. Fox School of Business@Temple University: “Intelligence Augmentation for Higher-Quality Peer Feedback: Supporting Students by Recommending Features of Written Feedback that Should be Improved”

    1. June 2022

    Standort: IWI-HSG, Müller-Friedbergstrasse 8, 9000 St.Gallen (Raum 52-7024) oder per Zoom

    Datum: 01.06.2022, 14:00 bis 15:30

    Konstantin Bauman, Ph.D., Ass. Prof. Fox School of Business@Temple University: “Intelligence Augmentation for Higher-Quality Peer Feedback: Supporting Students by Recommending Features of Written Feedback that Should be Improved”

    The value of peer feedback is growing for large-scale courses in universities, as well as for MOOCs, where it is used as a method to provide students with formative feedback and support them in their learning journey. However, students usually have little to no experience in providing feedback and especially in formulating ideas in a way that would help feedback recipients understand all the raised critical issues and improve their submission accordingly.  In his research talk, Konstantin Bauman will present his work in collaboration with Roman Rietsche, Matthias Söllner and Jan Marco Leimeister from the Institute of Information Management (HSG) and the University of Kassel. In their work they developed an intelligence augmentation approach which was implemented and proposed to support students in the process of creating peer feedback with personalized recommendations of the most critical text features that need improvement. They designed a novel framework that provides such recommendations aiming to maximize the feedback quality as perceived by the feedback recipient. Furthermore, they also designed a novel Feature Utility Saturation Model (FUSM) that works as part of the framework. To test how the proposed method works in practice, they conduct a field experiment with 490 students taking three different courses at a public university in Europe. The results show that the personalized recommendation approach works well as it outperforms baselines and helps students create longer feedback and of significantly higher quality, as evaluated by feedback recipients.

    Dr. Konstantin Bauman joined the Fox School on a tenure track appointment within the Department of Management Information Systems on January 1, 2018. He arrives at Fox from the Stern School of Business at New York University, where he served as a postdoctoral research fellow. Bauman’s research interests lie in the areas of technical information systems, with focus on the fields of quantitative modeling and data science. In particular, he works on developing novel machine learning methods for predicting customer preferences, and designing novel approaches to recommender systems that provide personalized advice to customers. Before joining NYU, Bauman worked as the head of a machine-learning group within the research department of Yandex, where he dealt with large-scale machine learning and data science problems on a daily basis. He also served as a software engineer at Yandex and the Russian Academy of Foreign Trade.

    Bauman received his PhD in Mathematics (Geometry and Topology) from Russia’s Moscow State University, where he also earned a Master of Science degree in Mathematics. He also obtained a Master of Science degree in Machine Learning from a joint program between the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Yandex School of Data Analysis in Russia.

    https://www.linkedin.com/in/konstantinbauman/

    https://community.mis.temple.edu/kbauman/

    2021

    Research Talk Dominik Gutt: The Rise of Robo-Reviews – The Effects of Chatbot-Mediated Review Elicitation on Online Reviews

    16. September 2021

    Standort: IWI-HSG, Müller-Friedbergstrasse 8, 9000 St.Gallen (Raum 52-5120) oder per Zoom

    Datum: 16.09.2021, 10:00 bis 12:00

    Dominik Gutt,  Assistant Professor at Rotterdam School of Management: The Rise of Robo-Reviews – The Effects of Chatbot-Mediated Review Elicitation on Online Reviews

    Chatbots have been introduced as a new way to receive product reviews. However, little is known how the chatbot-mediated solicitation influences review characteristics such as the valence or the helpfulness. We conduct four studies to narrow this literature gap. Our results show that (1) chatbot-mediated review elicitation leads to a positivity bias in ratings, particularly strong for low-quality products; (2) chatbot-mediated reviews negatively impact a range of review dimensions (e.g., helpfulness) mainly due to decreased review length, (3) the positivity bias varies depending on the level of anthropomorphism in the chatbot and the nature of the survey deployer (seller vs. platform), and can be explained by audience tuning due to social presence. Our research is among the first to uncover a link between chatbot use, review valence, and other valuable review

    Research Talk Prof. Dr. Ali Sunyaev: Design Trade-Offs, Viability, and Management of Applications on Distributed Ledger Technology

    6. September 2021

    Standort: IWI-HSG, Müller-Friedbergstrasse 8, 9000 St.Gallen (Raum 52-5120) oder per Zoom

    Datum: 06.09.2021, 10:00 bis 11:30

    Prof. Dr. Ali Sunyaev, Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT): Design Trade-Offs, Viability, and Management of Applications on Distributed Ledger Technology

    While design decisions determine the quality and viability of applications in general, in Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT), the decision for a suitable DLT design (e.g., Ethereum, IOTA) is of particular relevance because the retroactive change of the underlying DLT design is currently very hard and often even impossible. Extant research has revealed several trade-offs between DLT characteristics (e.g., availability vs. consistency). Such trade-offs inhibit a one-size-fits-all DLT design that suites the requirements of applications on DLT. For an appropriate assessment of the suitability of DLT designs for a particular application on DLT, researchers and developers require a systematic and holistic overview of the functioning of different DLT designs, including their configuration of DLT characteristics as well as dependencies and resulting trade-offs between DLT characteristics. In this talk I will first summarize and reflect the design trade-offs, viability, and management of applications on DLT. Second, I will present the configuration and management tool for applications on DLT we currently work on.

    CV: https://www.aifb.kit.edu/web/Ali_Sunyaev

    Research Talk Dr. Monika Malinova Mandelburger: Cognitive diagram understanding and task performance in systems analysis and design

    26. April 2021

    Standort: Via Zoom, Müller-Friedberg-Strasse 8, St. Gallen

    Datum: 26.04.2021, 11:00

    Dr. Monika Malinova Mandelburger, WU Wien; “Cognitive diagram understanding and task performance in systems analysis and design”

    Diagrams play an important role in Systems Analysis and Design (SAD). So far, cognitive research on diagram criteria in relation to task performance has been fragmented. The aim of this talk is to (1) discuss the cognitive processing steps involved during understanding and task performance with diagrams, (2) discuss criteria for such diagrams to best support cognitive processing and (3) demonstrate the support effective diagrams provide for performing SAD tasks. First, we present a theoretical cognitive framework of task performance with diagrams called CogniDia. It integrates different cognitive theories from research on diagrams in software engineering and information systems. Second, we present findings from a literature review on criteria for effective cognitive processing of diagrams. Third, we use the theoretical cognitive framework CogniDia to investigate how diagrams support the SAD process effectively.

    Monika Malinova is a postdoctoral researcher with the Institute for Information Business at the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU Vienna), Austria. She obtained her PhD degree in 2016 from WU Vienna. Her PhD thesis was awarded the Dr. Maria Schaumayer award for an excellent dissertation of 2016.  In 2015 Monika was awarded the Internationalization Program Scholarship from the Dr. Maria Schaumayer Foundation. Since January 2018 Monika is a Hertha Firnberg Fellow funded by the FWF Austrian Science Fund. The Hertha Firnberg is a program offered to highly qualified female scientists who are working towards a career in universities. Monika’s research interests include business process management, process innovation, and conceptual modeling. Her research has been published in MIS Quarterly, BPMJ, ICIS and ECIS, among others.

    2020

    Research Talk Jean-Charles Pillet: What does IT do exactly? An empirical investigation of the effects of ambiguous perceptions of IT artifacts on use behaviors

    15. October 2020

    Standort:

    Dr. Jean-Charles Pillet, Postdoc University of Lausanne, Departement of Information Systems; “What does IT do exactly? An empirical investigation of the effects of ambiguous perceptions of IT artifacts on use behaviors”

    2019

    Research Talk Henderik Proper: Fundamental challenges in systems modelling

    26. September 2019

    Standort: Institut für Wirtschaftsinformtik, St. Gallen

    Prof. Henderik Proper, Luxemburg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST); Fundamental challenges in systems modelling

    Abstract: In the context of information systems, and digital ecosystems at large, many different forms of systems modelling are used. This includes: enterprise (architecture) modelling, business process modelling, ontology modelling and information modelling. The resulting models have come to play an important role during all stages of the life-cycle of digital (eco)systems.

    In our view, the key role of models also fuels the need for a more fundamental reflection on core aspects of modelling itself. In line with this, the goal of this presentation is to explore some of the underlying fundamental challenges of modelling, and in doing so create awareness for, and initiate discussions on, the need for more foundational research into these challenges.

    The discussion of these challenges has been structured in terms of three clusters: the semiotic foundations, the essence of modelling, and the role of normative frames (such as modelling languages).

    Research Talk Sunil Wattal: Competitive Poaching in Search Advertising: A Randomized Field Experiment

    16. July 2019

    Standort:

    Prof. Sunil Wattal, Assistociate Professor at Fox School of Business, Temple University, Philadelphia; “Competitive Poaching in Search Advertising: A Randomized Field Experiment”

    Abstract: Keyword searches with brand names occur very commonly on search engines, which enables firms to infer not only when customers are searching for them, but also when customers are searching for their competitors. In other words, firms can generate traffic from search engine advertising by bidding not only on their own keywords but also on competitors’ keywords. The strategy of bidding on competitors’ keywords, known as competitive poaching, presents unique opportunities for academic research.

    In this research, we examine the factors that influence the effectiveness of competitive poaching, specifically the role of different ad copies and the type of competitor (poached brand) that a brand is “poaching” from. We also examine how competing sponsored ads from the poached brand and other advertisers have an impact on competitive poaching. We run a field experiment for a three-month period with a business school in northeastern United States, by bidding on keywords of competing schools and randomly displaying different types of ad copies. We find that ad copies that feature vertical differentiation are more effective than other ad copies when poaching on keywords of high-quality brands. We also find that when poaching from low-quality brands, ad copies featuring horizontal differentiation perform better than other ad copies. We further show that the presence of the poached brand’s own ad leads to a positive impact when that brand is high-quality, and a negative impact if the poached brand is low-quality. Finally, we also find that the presence of other advertisers using quality signals in their ad copies has a positive impact on clicks. However, use of vertical differentiation ad copies by the focal brand negatively moderates the impact of  the presence of other advertisers using quality signals. The academic and managerial contributions are also discussed.