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get_appSacha Fuchs, Roman Rietsche, Stephan Aier, Michael Rivera
Conference or Workshop Item
More and more employees request feedback from their organizations to develop and learn. This is reflected by a growing number of digital feedback apps which facilitate high-frequency feedback exchange. However, the effect of feedback has hardly been studied on an organizational level due to complexity. Therefore, we strive to analyze organizational feedback exchange with an agent-based simulation model. Concretely, we study the effect of feedback length and feedback frequency on the organizational return on investment (ROI) of feedback exchange. Our study shows that feedback length stays in an inverted U-shape relationship with ROI. Contrarily, feedback frequency is negatively correlated with ROI. When analyzed jointly, two sweet spots arise: one for medium-length, frequent feedback, and the other, for longer infrequent feedback.

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In the context of digital transformation, it is mandatory for most organizations to conduct information systems development (ISD) projects as part of their digitalization and business development journey. One reason that many ISD projects fail is lack of knowledge about which ISD method (ISDM) is most suitable for the project at hand and how to adapt it to reflect the respective business development context. These problems especially occur in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), as they often lack specific methodological skills and project governance experience – so they cannot even manage ISD consultancies that promise to support them in their digital transformation. In this conceptual paper, we present the design of a method for selecting and using ISDM for SMEs. It considers both the context dependency and missing project governance skills of SMEs. The main components of the proposed method link the knowledge areas of business development and ISD: business context evaluation, ISDM selection and ISDM management.

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Digital platforms (DPs) – technical core artifacts augmented by peripheral third-party complementary resources – facilitate the interaction and collaboration of different actors through highly-efficient resource matching. As DPs differ significantly in their configurations and applications, it is important from both a descriptive and a design perspective to define classes of DPs. As an intentionally designed artifact, every classification pursues a certain purpose. In this research, the purpose is to classify DPs from a business model perspective, i.e. to identify DP clusters that each share a similar business model type. We follow Nickerson et al.’s (2013) method for taxonomy development. By validating the conceptually derived design dimensions with ten DP cases, we identify platform structure and platform participants as the major clustering constituent characteristics. Building on the proposed taxonomy, we derive four DP archetypes that follow distinct design configurations, namely business innovation platforms, consumer innovation platforms, business exchange platforms and consumer exchange platforms.

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(a) Problem faced: Due to heterogeneous stakeholder requirements, highly diverse tasks, and massive investments needed, enterprise-wide information systems (e-wIS) are often developed through multiple projects over long time periods. In this context, choosing the ‘right’ evolution paths becomes essential. This is not straightforward because e-wIS comprise technical, organizational, and use-related issues so that development stages need to be aligned over heterogeneous dimensions. Although maturity models (MM) are an established instrument to devise development paths, their respective development processes often lack transparency and theoretical as well as empirical grounding. Moreover, extant MM often focus on the control of certain capabilities (doing things right) rather than on providing the necessary capabilities in a sequence appropriate for a given type of organization (doing the right things). (b) Solution developed: We propose an empirically grounded design method for MMs, which devises capability development sequences rather than control levels. We instantiate the proposed method twice—for developing a Business Intelligence (BI) MM as well as a Corporate Performance Management (CPM) MM as two exemplary types of e-wIS. The artifacts are developed over three laps to successively enhance both their projectability in the problem space and their tangibility in the solution space. (c) Lessons Learned: (1) In DSR projects it often proves valuable to be open for diverse research approaches such as classical qualitative or quantitative approaches since they may purposefully ground and guide design decisions. (2) Complex artifact design processes may not be carried out by a single PhD student or published in a single paper. They require adequate decomposition and organizational integration. (3) Finally, complex and emergent artifact design processes require a reliable network of practice organizations rather than a project contract with a single organization.

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While agile principles and methods have become mainstream in IT solution development, they have also immersed project management and organizational design. This process, however, is gradual so that management and governance practice of digital transformation programs (DTP) often have to deal with a coexistence of agile and traditional components. Such coexistence leads to tensions as some agile principles and methods are incompatible with or even contrary to their traditional counterparts. Drawing on existing discourses on tensions and governance, the purpose of this paper is to (1) identify and analyze such tensions in the context of complex DTP, (2) explore the corresponding challenges for program governance, and (3) derive requirements to enhance current DTP governance practice to deal with those challenges. The data gathered from an in-depth revelatory dual-case study of large DTPs let us identify 18 tensions, 17 corresponding governance challenges, and derive 10 requirements for a “change-mode-agnostic” governance system.

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Despite growing project management maturity, the failure rate of IT-related projects remains high. We investigated four large IT-related projects within the Swiss Federal Administration that were well-managed but still failed. We found that these projects failed because of poor project governance, in particular inadequate handling of project context by the project sponsor and steering committee. We identify five contextual factors that steering committees should focus on and provide recommendations for strengthening context-aware project governance, illustrated by their implementation in the Swiss Federal Administration.

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Sir Isaac Newton (1676) famously said, “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Research is a collaborative, evolutionary endeavor—and it is no different with design science research (DSR), which builds upon existing design knowledge and creates new design knowledge to pass on to future projects. However, despite the vast, growing body of DSR contributions, scant evidence of the accumulation and evolution of design knowledge has been articulated in an organized DSR body of knowledge. Most contributions rather stand on their own feet than on the shoulders of giants, and this continues to limit how far we can see, curtailing the extent of the broader impacts that can be made through DSR. In this editorial, we aim at providing guidance on how to position design knowledge contributions in wider problem and solution spaces. We propose (1) a model conceptualizing design knowledge as a resilient relationship between problem and solution spaces, (2) a model that demonstrates how individual DSR projects consume and produce design knowledge, (3) a map to position a design knowledge contribution in problem and solution spaces, and (4) principles on how to use this map in a DSR project. We show how fellow researchers, readers, editors, and reviewers, as well as the IS community as a whole, can make use of these proposals, and also illustrate future research opportunities.

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Understanding how information systems (IS) architecture evolves and what outcomes can be expected from the evolution of IS architecture presents a considerable challenge for both research and practice. The evolution of IS architecture is marked by management’s efforts to keep local and short-term IS investments in line with enterprise-wide and long-term objectives, so they often employ coercive mechanisms to enforce enterprise-wide considerations on local actors. However, an organization is shaped by a multitude of heterogeneous local actors’ actions that pursue their own, sometimes conflicting, goals, norms, and values. This study offers a theory-informed simulation model that explores how IS architecture evolves and with what outcomes in various types of organizations. The simulation model is informed by institutional theory to capture various types of organizations that are characterized by different combinations of coercive, normative, and mimetic pressures, and by complex adaptive systems theory to capture the emergent character of IS architecture’s evolution. First, we outline the insights from simulation experiments. Then, building on the simulation model and theoretical insights, we discuss implications for both research and practice.

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Enterprise architecture management (EAM) in organizations often requires coping with conflicts between long-term enterprise-wide goals and short-term goals of local decision-makers. We argue that these goal conflicts are similar to the goal conflicts that occur in public goods dilemmas: people are faced with a choice between an option (a) with a high collective benefit for a group of people and a low individual benefit, and another option (b) with a low collective benefit and a high individual benefit. Building on institutional theory, we hypothesize how different combinations of institutional pressures (coercive, normative, and mimetic) affect decision makers’ behavior in such conflictive situations. We conduct a set of experiments for testing our hypotheses on cooperative behavior in a delayed-reward public goods dilemma. As preliminary results, we find that normative and mimetic pressures enhance cooperative behavior. Coercive pressure, however, may have detrimental effects in settings that normative and mimetic pressures are disregarded. In future work, we plan to transfer the abstract experimental design of an onlinelab experiment into a field experiment setting and thus into the real-world context of EAM.

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To unlock additional business value, most enterprises are intensifying their enterprise-wide data management. In the case of the globally operating bank, we base this article on, a Chief Data Officer (CDO) organization is established for providing data governance and, in a second step, pushing data driven innovation forward. As many employees of the bank were not yet familiar with (or did not acknowledge) the need for enterprise-wide data management, this evolution exhibits characteristics of an organizational learning process. CDOs may want to actively steer this learning process by purposefully designing and adjusting their data management approach over time. Based on the major controversies the CDO has been confronted with, we propose four design dimensions for enterprise-wide data management and discuss the considerations for their configuration: (I) objective, (II) governance, (III) organization of data analytics, and (IV) expertise.

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In the context of digital platforms, platform owners strive to maximize both their platform’s stability and generativity. This is complicated by the paradoxical relationship of generativity and stability, as well as associated tensions. To aid B2B platform owners in their design decisions, we aim to derive specific design principles that address the inherent tensions such that generativity and stability are maximized simultaneously. This requires a better understanding of when and to which extent a platform’s generativity and stability are paradoxical, and under which circumstances they can be maximized simultaneously. Thus, we first develop an agent-based simulation model to analyze the effects of an exemplary design decision regarding a tension (i.e. control vs. openness) on a platform’s generativity and stability. The developed simulation model enables predictive analyses of varying degrees of control and openness and their effect on generativity and stability. The simulation model must be further refined and applied to other tensions to thoroughly understand the impact of design decisions on a platform’s generativity and stability, and ultimately derive design principles.

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Aligning local business and technology initiatives with enterprise-wide objectives remains a challenge for many organizations. To this end, Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) imposes formal control mechanisms such as architecture plans and principles aimed at leveraging enterprise-wide standards and harnessing information systems (IS) complexity. Addressing recent calls to complement EAM control portfolios with informal control mechanisms, this study reports on the design, implementation and adoption of an Enterprise Architecture Label at a large multinational engineering company. Based on recent research on nudging, we deliberately designed the choice architecture of local decision makers. The Enterprise Architecture Label aims to influence the decision-making process, so that IS design alternatives that are preferable from an enterprise-wide perspective appear to be more attractive. Following an Action Design Research approach, the paper highlights the process of defining the underlying measurement system, designing an appropriate presentation, and the learnings and theory implications made throughout this process.

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Information systems (IS) increasingly expand actor-to-actor networks beyond their temporal, organizational, and spatial boundaries. In such networks and through digital technology, IS enable distributed economic and social actors to not only exchange but also integrate their resources in materializing value co-creation processes. To account for such IS-enabled value co-creation processes in multi-actor settings, this research gives rise to the phenomenon of digital value co-creation networks (DVNs). In designing DVNs, it is not only necessary to consider underpinning value co-creation processes, but also the characteristics of the business environments in which DVNs evolve. To this end, our study guides the design of DVNs through employing service dominant logic, a theoretical lens that conceptualizes value co-creation as well as business environments. Through an iterative research process, this study derives design requirements and design principles for DVNs, and eventually discusses how these design principles can be illustrated by expository design features for DVNs.

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Information systems analysis and design (ISAD) ensures the design of information systems (IS) in line with the requirements of a business environment. Since ISAD approaches follow the current dominant logic of business, the rise of a new and thriving business logic may require revisiting and advancing extant ISAD approaches and techniques. One of the prevailing debates in marketing research is the paradigmatic shift from a goods-dominant (G-D) to a service-dominant (S-D) logic of business. The cornerstone of this reorientation is the concept of value co-creation emphasizing joint value creation among a variety of actors within a business network. With the aim of introducing value co-creation as a new discourse to ISAD research, this research note argues that (i) the lens of S-D logic with its core concept of value co-creation provides a novel perspective to ISAD. We also assert that (ii) value-co-creation-informed IS design realizes the paradigmatic shift from G-D to S-D logic. Building on this mutual relationship between value co-creation and ISAD, we propose a research agenda and discuss the ISAD artefacts that prospective research may target.

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Design Science Research (DSR) has many risks. Researchers inexperienced in DSR, especially early career researchers (ECRs) and research students (e.g. PhD students) risk inefficient projects (with delays, rework, etc.) at best and research project failure at worst if they do not manage and treat DSR risks in a proactive manner. The DSR literature, such as the Risk Management Framework for Design Science Research (RMF4DSR), provides advice for identifying risks, but provides few suggestions for specific treatments for the kinds of risks that potentially plague DSR. This paper describes the development of a new purposeful artefact (TRiDS: Treatments for Risks in Design Science) to address this lack of suggestions for treatment of DSR risks. The paper describes how the purposeful artefact was developed (following a DSR methodology), what literature it draws upon to inspire its various components, the functional requirements identified for TRiDS, and how TRiDS is structured and why. The paper also documents the TRiDS purposeful artefact in detail, including four main components: (1) an extended set of risk checklists (extended from RMF4DSR), (2) a set of 47 specific suggestions for treating known risks in DSR, (3) a classification of the treatments identified into 14 different categories, and (4) a look-up table for identifying candidate treatments based on a risk in the extended risk checklists. The treatment suggestions and guidance in TRiDS serve as a supplement to RMF4DSR by helping DSR researchers to identify treatments appropriate for a particular DSR project (or program) and thereby to improve DSR project efficiency and the probability of DSR project success.

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Digital platforms—technical core artefacts augmented by peripheral third-party derivatives—afford organizations to integrate resources in networked business ecosystems. Although digital platforms widely differ in their configurations, digital platforms’ dimensions and characteristics to disentangle different digital platform configurations are under-researched. To bridge this void, we employ Nickerson et al.’s method for taxonomy development to systematically derive a taxonomy of digital platforms. Specifically, we embrace a platform architecture perspective to capture the configuration of digital platform’s components. The resultant taxonomy facilitates a more pronounced understanding and grouping of digital platforms as configurations of certain dimensions and characteristics. Our findings suggest that digital platforms exhibit characteristics on at least four dimensions—namely, infrastructure, core, ecosystem, and service dimensions. Second, through instantiating the taxonomy, we find that digital platforms that exhibit similar characteristics share identical architectural profiles and, therefore, belong to one of three digital platform archetypes—namely, orchestration, amalgamation, and innovation platforms.

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In this paper, we provide a conceptual model of the knowledge gaps that design science researchers should attend to in order to ensure that their use of justificatory knowledge is made in an appropriate way. We identify nine knowledge gaps between descriptive (cause-effect) relations in kernel theories, prescriptive (means-ends) relations in prescriptive and design theories, and the instantiated relations (instantiated design features and design requirements). The development of the conceptual model of the knowledge gaps was informed by and illustrated with the case of the longitudinal design science research project on team coordination called Coopilot. An initial set of strategies to ensure the appropriateness of justificatory knowledge is identified.

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Perspectives in organizations differ to which extent information systems (IS) should be tailored towards local (e.g., business unit) needs or toward organi-zation-wide, global goals (e.g., synergies, integration). For contributing to overall IS performance success, the harmonization of different perspectives becomes essential. While many scholars have highlighted the role of IS management approaches, institutional studies argue that harmonization is not solely the result of managerial action, but a consequence of institutional pressures that guide organizational decision-making. In the paper at hand, we follow the call for adopting institutional theory on the intra-organizational level of analysis and study the logic of attaining harmoniza-tion along institutional pressures. By means of a revelatory case study, we find harmonization attained in a dynamic interplay between different institu-tional pressures. Mimetic pressures influence normative pressures, which in turn influence coercive pressures. Our findings as well as our implications for enterprise engineering guide prospective research in studying the attain-ment of harmonization through an institutional lens.

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As organisations are challenged with volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA), de-veloping Agile capabilities becomes first priority for most organisations to innovate and disrupt entire markets. A great number of companies, however, face significant challenges to effectively manage or-ganisational change while developing Agile capabilities. In this paper-in-progress the author adopts Design Science approach and develops an artefact - Capability Maturity Model (CMM), which prom-ises to solve abovementioned challenges. Although maturity models (MMs) are an established instru-ment to devise development paths, currently available Maturity Models often focus on the control of certain capabilities (doing things right) rather than on developing the necessary capabilities in a se-quence appropriate for a given type of organization (doing the right things) (Winter, R., Aier, S., 2019). Therefore, the proposed artefact will focus on devising capability development sequences that correspond to organisational learning, rather than control levels. In particular, such management tool will help organisations (1) to assess the current maturity of their Corporate Agility capabilities, (2) to create a basis for defining their target state, (3) to enable fact-based communication with a large group of stakeholders concerning organisation’s agility transformation, and (4) to derive concrete measures (roadmap) for directed improvement of the capabilities.

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get_appJan Marco Leimeister, Jörg Becker, Armin Heinzl, Robert Winter, David Gefen
Journal paper
In recent years, the doctorate degree has been subject to a seeming loss of value (e.g., Cyranoski et al. 2011; Economist 2010; Guldner 2019). One striking indicator is the decline in number of top executives with doctorates: while 58% of board members of German companies held a doctorate in 2007, this number has shrunk to 44% in 2017 (Guldner 2019). Other indicators of labor market success have also deteriorated for doctorate holders over the last 20 years: incomes have fallen and fewer doctorate holders than before are working full-time – at a time when the labor market has otherwise developed well (e.g., Economist 2010). Yet, the need for highly qualified employees for example with respect to digitization has been growing. Just recently, for example, companies’ demand for experts on Artificial Intelligence (AI) has seen a stark increase (Fasse and Kerkmann 2018). This makes it all the more surprising that the growing number of doctoral students (an average growth of...

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For decades much effort has been made to improve project management capabilities. Still, the failure rate remains high, especially for large IT projects. Our postmortem analysis of 15 large IT projects of the Swiss Federal Administration, with an accumulated loss of one billion U.S. dollars, shows that while project management deficits account for some of the failures, project failure is primarily caused by poor project governance capabilities. Based on insights gained from the initial failure analysis, the Swiss Federal Government decided to assess all its large IT projects based on our co-designed framework. Meanwhile, also private companies have assessed IT projects applying our framework. As a consequence, valuable discussions and measures have been initiated and sporadically projects were stopped. The data gained by these assessments will allow to identify patterns that promise to be a reference for governance actors and bodies what information to ask for, when to intervene, and how.

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There is a growing body of literature that addresses the importance of health and wellbeing in the workplace, and the effectiveness of corporate wellness programs. Following advancements in low-cost and unobtrusive computing technology, an emerging trend in corporate wellness programs is to offer wearable devices to employees. These devices monitor employees' physiological and environmental conditions in order to improve their awareness of their personal health. In addition, organizations can harness the aggregated anonymized data provided by such technology to investigate ways of improving the work environment. However, promoting digital health monitoring systems introduces new dynamic interactions between the social actors and technology. Three main categories of strain caused by the use of these systems in a work environment are value tensions (privacy vs. wellbeing); action tensions (work vs. leisure activities), and role tensions (leisure vs. work roles). Based on an analysis of these tensions, design principles for digital occupational health systems are derived that minimize strain and have much bigger chances to be accepted and thus to create value for all stakeholders. Consequently, this study follows the design science research paradigm to derive design principles.

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Conference or Workshop Item
A digital platform is viewed as the central point of gravity within its business ecosystem to facilitate value co-creation processes among its business ecosystem’s constituent actors. Considering the specificities of business ecosystems, we investigate digital platforms’ sustained growth—referred to as digital platform permanence in this study. We posit that digital platform permanence is contingent on its owner’s capabilities to ensure efficient and effective value co-creation processes among the digital platform’s constituent actors on both service system and service ecosystem levels. Building on the inherent control-generativity dualism of digital platforms and through investigating an existing business-to-business digital platform, we identify four key capabilities for digital platform permanence. While two capabilities (system orchestration and system reformation) reflect the owner’s ability to facilitate value co-creation processes on the service system level, the other two capabilities (ecosystem preservation and ecosystem diversification) reflect the owner’s ability to facilitate value co-creation processes on the service ecosystem level.

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Enterprise architecture management (EAM) has long been considered a governance means to impose enterprise-wide objectives to local information systems development projects. This perspective on EAM inevitably brings about formal control mechanisms with the aim of enforcing enterprise-wide objectives in a top-down fashion. This study takes a complementary perspective by investigating the portfolio of control mechanisms with and beyond formal control mechanisms. We examine control portfolios and their dynamics over time. We employ control theory to capture the portfolio of control mechanisms, and an organizational sensemaking perspective, to capture its dynamics. The longitudinal analysis of a financial service company over a decade reveals that EAM’s portfolio of control mechanisms emerges in an ongoing sensemaking process. In this process, various stakeholders continuously interpret cues in their environment and take actions in response to these cues. Further, we demonstrate that control portfolios are constantly (re)configured, through different combinations of formal and informal mechanisms.

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Marketing research apprises scholars in different disciplines of a paradigmatic reorientation from a traditional goods-dominant (G-D) to a service-dominant (S-D) logic. S-D logic re-conceptualizes the notion of economic exchange. The cornerstone of this reorientation is the concept of value co-creation—a collaborative process of reciprocal value creation among various actors. Owing to S-D logic’s significance, information systems (IS) research discusses its prospective implications on core elements of the IS knowledge base. However, an equivocal understanding of value co-creation’s foundations, semantics, and use emphasizes its underlying theoretical ambiguity in IS and marketing research. Through employing Methontology, a well-structured methodology to build ontologies, we develop a value co-creation ontology for IS from an S-D logic perspective. The developed ontology not only offers a multidisciplinary glossary of value co-creation’s constituent concepts, but also thoroughly depicts their relationships. The resultant ontology represents a first step toward reflecting S-D logic in IS analysis and design.

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Simulations provide a useful methodological approach for studying the behavior of complex socio-technical information systems (IS), in which humans and IT artifacts interact to process information. However, the use of simulations is relatively new in IS research and the current presence and impact of simulation-based studies is still limited. Furthermore, simulation-based research is quite different from other approaches, making it difficult to position and evaluate it adequately. Therefore, this paper first analyses the epistemic particularities of simulation-based IS research. Based on this analysis, a structured literature review of the status quo of simulation-based IS research was conducted, to understand how IS scholars currently employ simulation. A comparison of the epistemic particularities of simulation-based research with its status quo in IS literature allows to critically examine epistemic inferences in the respective research process. The results provide guidance for prospective simulation-based IS research through discussing the theory-based derivation of simulation models, as well as different simulation techniques, validation techniques, and simulation uses.

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The benefits of enterprise modeling (EM) and its contribution to organizational tasks are largely undisputed in business and information systems engineering. EM as a discipline has been around for several decades but is typically performed by a limited number of people in organizations with an affinity to modeling. What is captured in models is only a fragment of what ought to be captured. Thus, this research note argues that EM is far from its maximum potential. Many people develop some kind of model in their local practice without thinking about it consciously. Exploiting the potential of this "grass roots modeling" could lead to groundbreaking innovations. The aim is to investigate integration of the established practices of modeling with local practices of creating and using model-like artifacts of relevance for the overall organization.The paper develops a vision for extending the reach of EM,identifies research areas contributing to the vision and proposes elements of a future research agenda.

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Enterprise architecture (EA) has long been propagated in information systems research as an approach for guiding diverse local stakeholders toward a common holistic perspective. Despite its maturation over the past decades, organizations still encounter institutional obstacles with realizing EA’s intended outcomes. Literature addressing this challenge mainly understands EA as an exogenous phenomenon that needs to be brought into the organization. In the paper at hand, we aim to go one step further. We focus on EA assimilation by studying the influence of institutional pressures that make EA part of the organization’s worklife and thus contribute to EA’s intended outcomes. By capturing all institutional pressures through which EA may become an inherent part of the organization’s worklife, we empirically confirm their influence on EA assimilation and EA outcomes. In addition, we find the engagement of local organizational stakeholders to sig-nificantly mediate the relation between institutional pressures and EA assimilation.

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Cost allocations for business intelligence (BI) costs create cost awareness, enhance cost transparency, and support the management of BI systems. Although BI cost allocation is highly relevant in practice, the field is widely uncharted in current scholarly research. In this article, the state of the art in scientific literature is analyzed. The review is comprised of three iterations. It shows that certain general approaches for information systems cost allocation are suitable candidates if being combined and tailored to BI systems. Based on synthesis, an agenda is derived for future research into cost allocation for BI systems.

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The information systems (IS) field contains a rich body of knowledge on approaches, methods, and frameworks that supports researchers in conducting design science research (DSR). It also contains some consensus about the key elements of DSR projects—such as problem identification, design, implementation, evaluation, and abstraction of design knowledge. Still, we lack any commonly accepted tools that address the needs of DSR scholars who seek to structure, manage, and present their projects. Indeed, DSR endeavors, which are often complex and multi-faceted in nature and involve various stakeholders (e.g., researchers, developers, practitioners, and others), require the support that such tools provide. Thus, to investigate the tools that DSR scholars actually need to effectively and efficiently perform their work, we conducted an open workshop with DSR scholars at the 2017 DESRIST conference in Karlsruhe, Germany, to debate 1) the general requirement categories of DSR tool support and 2) the more specific requirements. This paper reports on the results from this workshop. Specifically, we identify nine categories of requirements that fall into the three broad phases (pre-design, design, and post design) and that contribute to a software ecosystem for supporting DSR endeavors.

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Simulation has been adopted in many disciplines as a means for understanding the behavior of a system by imitating it through an artificial object that exhibits a nearly identical behavior. Although simulation approaches have been widely adopted for theory building in disciplines such as engineering, computer science, management, and social sciences, their potential in the IS field is often overlooked. The aim of this paper is to understand how different simulation approaches are used in IS research, thereby providing insights and methodological recommendations for future studies. A literature review of simulation studies published in top-tier IS journals leads to the definition of three classes of simulations, namely the self-organizing, the elementary, and the situated. A set of stylized facts is identified for characterizing the ways in which the premise, the inference, and the contribution are presented in IS simulation studies. As a result, this study provides guidance to future simulation researchers in designing and presenting findings.

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Organizations constantly adapt their Information Systems (IS) architecture to reflect changes in their environment. In general, such adaptations steadily increase the complexity of their IS architecture, thereby negatively impacting IS efficiency and IS flexibility. Based on a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) perspective, we present a more differentiated analysis of the impact of IS architecture complexity. We hypothesize the relation between IS architecture complexity on the one hand, and IS efficiency and IS flexibility on the other hand to be mediated by evolutionary and revolutionary IS change. Subsequently, we test our hypotheses through a partial least squares (PLS) approach to structural equation modelling (SEM) based on survey data from 185 respondents. We find that the direct negative impact of IS architecture complexity on IS efficiency and IS flexibility is no longer statistically relevant when also considering the mediating effects of revolutionary and evolutionary IS change.

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Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) is a prominent discipline for purposefully guiding the complex, co-evolutionary business-IT relationships in organizations. Means to realize such guidance are, among others, mechanisms to coordinate heterogeneous and potentially conflicting stakeholder concerns. Yet, organizations face challenges to successfully leverage their EAM initiatives, often as a result of coordination mechanisms that only reach specific stakeholders or selected contexts. In the paper at hand, we aim at introducing coordination as a research lens for analyzing and designing EAM approaches. To this end, we substantiate the abstract notion of coordination through its underlying formal and informal mechanisms, which are implemented by artifacts, as well as through artifact modalities in an analysis framework. For illustrative purposes, we apply the developed analysis framework to The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF). We find informal mechanisms (lateral relations, communication, and socialization) comparably underrepresented, which limits not only coordination effects but may also limit the success of the overall EAM approach. Our findings call for an extended and more comprehensive perspective on coordination in EAM, motivating the complementarity of informal mechanisms as an avenue for future research.

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As a result of growing complexities in business processes, information systems, and the technical infrastructure, a key challenge for enterprise architecture management (EAM) is to guide stakeholders from different hierarchical levels with heterogeneous concerns. EA deliverables, such as models or frameworks, are often highly comprehensive and standardized. However, these can hardly be applied without greater adaption. Although the literature selectively covers approaches for tailoring EA deliverables closer to the concerns of affected stakeholders, these approaches are often vague or not very differentiated. In the paper at hand, we aim at introducing a stakeholder perspective to EAM research that considers stakeholder concerns on EAM across hierarchical levels. To this end, we conduct a case study: Our results show homogenous concerns among stakeholders on EA deliverables. In turn, we found different concerns on the role of EAM in applying these deliverables, dependent on the hierarchical level of stakeholders. These findings stress the necessity for a more differentiated understanding of stakeholder concerns on EAM. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for an exemplary EAM approach.

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In this paper, we define three key performance indicators (KPI) to measure the health of application portfolios (AP) and use the business capability map (BCM) as a visualization lens. Based on a literature review of AP management and BCM practices, we conduct a case study with a large European automotive company to develop three KPIs related to AP complexity, AP quality, and AP impact. The application of the KPIs is illustrated for the BCM of our case study partner and evaluated by conducting expert interviews with ten enterprise architecture experts of the company. Our results provide further insights on AP management practices that are enabled by using the BCM as a holistic visualization tool.

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Extant research gives rise to the notion of business-model-based management that stresses the pivotal role of the business model concept in organizational management. This role entails a shift in research from predominantly examining business model representation to the use of the business model concept in the design of management methods. In designing respective management methods, managers need to not only account for the business model concept, but also consider the characteristics of the emerging business environments in which business models are devised. To this, our study guides the design of business-model-based management methods through exploiting service-dominant logic, a theoretical lens that conceptualizes the emerging business environment. By means of design science research, this study develops four design principles for business-model-based management methods namely, ecosystem-, technology-, mobilization-, and co-creation-oriented management. This study also articulates the principles' rationale and implications and discusses their contribution in achieving business-model-based management.

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The identification of a problem, its causes and its consequences are integral parts of designing useful solutions in Design Science Research (DSR). Many problems addressed in DSR are of a socio-technical nature, and they are collaboratively solved in multidisciplinary teams. Accordingly, analysis techniques are needed which integrate diverse perspectives of problem analysis. Colored Cognitive Mapping for DSR (CCM4DSR) is such a technique. By applying CCM4DSR to an exemplary socio-technical problem, this paper reports on observed challenges and offers four extensions to CCM4DSR. These extensions provide guidance in adequately stating the problem, considering path dependencies, explicating different stakeholder perspectives, and integrating dif-ferent perspectives through a comprehensive process.

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Im Zuge der Digitalisierung haben technologische Fortschritte, neue Kundenbedürfnisse und neue regulatorische Anforderungen die Komplexität von Anwendungssystemen vervielfacht. Firmen müssen adäquat auf diese Veränderungen reagieren, da unnötige Komplexität oft zu Inkonsistenzen sowie kostspieligen Redundanzen führt. Anhand von Praxis-Analysen bei einem deutschen Automobilhersteller diskutiert dieser Artikel die Komplexität von IT-Landschaften, analysiert daraus resultierende Konsequenzen und entwirft Strategien, um diese unter Kontrolle zu bringen.

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Referring to the editorial paper on the launch of this journal, this commentary focuses on the enabling role of models for Organizational Design & Enterprise Engineering (OD&EE). Three aspects are discussed: (1) why should OD&EE be enabled by models only? Can models provide a sufficient coverage of the multi-faceted challenges of OD&EE, or should also other artefact types be considered as core OD&EE enablers? (2) How can models be used in a way that OD&EE knowledge is created and reused in an effective and efficient way? (3) What models and methods are needed when OD&EE aims to be perceived as a scientific discipline rather than as practice? What types of generalized OD&EE knowledge should be differentiated, and what methodological challenges have to be addressed?

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Studying organizational configurations on the one hand and the dynamics of organizational change on the other hand are dominant topics of interest in the information systems (IS) discipline. Studies in each of these research streams take advantage of various well-established theoretical lenses from reference disciplines such as management science. In this study, we take a closer look at archetype theory, which combines these two research streams and which eventually provides a dynamic perspective on organizational configurations. Through a literature review, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of archetype theory (i.e., its constitutive constructs and assumptions) as well as on its application in studying dynamics of configurations. In introducing archetype theory to IS research, we discuss the explanatory power of the respective theory for investigating IS phenomena as well as the methodological and theoretical implications of employing the theory in IS research.

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In this Chapter we present a reference framework, more specifically a catalogue of capabilities, needed for doing ACET. As such, it also provides guidance on which elements/artefacts of enterprise architecture can be used to support which aspects of enterprise architecture. For architects, it shows where their services might generate value, if requested. For transformation managers, it provides a “capability catalogue”, describing for which parts of enterprise architecture they may seek advice from the enterprise architects. The framework as a whole provides a structure for the solution components that addresses the challenges as presented in Part II, and it comprises of the perspectives of strategy, value and risk, design, implementation, and change. The capabilities of all the perspectives together support transformation management, which is concerned with the management tasks at the overall transformation level, and with the architectural coordination function, which forms an umbrella function of integrating the individual perspectives into a consistent whole.

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Smart meters are the backbone of modern electricity metering and an important enabler of reaching energy efficiency targets. The implementation of new metering infrastructure is, however, making little progress and is often focused on technical aspects only. Additionally, existing smart metering information systems do not yet exploit the possibilities to optimally support customers in their electricity savings activities. Knowing customer preferences is absolutely essential for the effectiveness of energy efficiency measures and, as a consequence, for realizing the economic value of smart metering technology. The presented research contributes to the field by identifying customer value perceptions concerning new smart meter services in the retail electricity market in Switzerland. Founded on a choice-based conjoint analysis with a data sample of more than 1500 respondents from three Swiss regions, five customer segments with different preferences are identified. With the exception of the comfort-oriented customer segment, the other four segments are comprised of customers who are willing (1) to pay for smart meter services and (2) to change their behavior to save electricity. Based on the identified customer value perceptions, implications for the design of smart meter-based energy efficiency services are elaborated.

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Information systems (IS) research has long been promoting the necessity of aligning local IS investments in organizations with their enterprise-wide objectives. One of the prominent means to realize such an alignment are mechanisms that coordinate various stakeholders in different organizational entities. Despite its prominent origins and manifold translations from organization science (OS), there is no coherent body of coordination theory. The research at hand con-ducts a literature review of coordination mechanisms to offer a more coherent understanding of coordination for prospective IS research. To this end and structured in eight categories of mechanisms, we contrast a reflection of coordination in OS and IS research. We also discuss how IS studies follow and complement OS research, outlining implications for future research.

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In this chapter we report on the case of a globally operating insurance company that has leveraged enterprise architecture management to support business transformations. In order to do so, the company has developed enterprise architecture management capabilities that help the business structuring the business transformation particularly in the early stages before handing over respective responsibilities to more specialized corporate functions later on. This case is interesting for understanding ACET because it is one of the rare cases where enterprise architecture management truly bridges the business–IT gap.

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Changing demands in society and the limited capabilities of health systems have paved the way for robots to move out of industrial contexts and enter more human-centered environments such as health care. We explore the shared beliefs and concerns of health workers on the introduction of autonomously operating service robots in hospitals or professional care facilities. By means of Q-methodology, a mixed research approach specifically designed for studying subjective thought patterns, we identify five potential end-user niches, each of which perceives different affordances and outcomes from using service robots in their working environment. Our findings allow for better understanding resistance and susceptibility of different users in a hospital and encourage managerial awareness of varying demands, needs, and surrounding conditions that a service robot must contend with. We also discuss general insights into presenting the Q-methodology results and how an affordance-based view could inform the adoption, appropriation, and adaptation of emerging technologies.

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The ongoing integration of Information Technology (IT) into various areas of our lives has led to a plethora of digital products and services. To survive competition in the long run, these offerings not only have to keep up with constant technological developments, but also have to adapt from a business point of view. Managers of these digital businesses have to especially focus on the design and evolution of their business’ revenue mechanisms to ensure the viability of their offerings. The related decisions are not trivial, as managers have to be aware of the relevant contextual factors and have to react quickly to changes in the environment. This paper proposes a viability theory for digital businesses described by 17 propositions that may guide managers in the design of revenue mechanisms and thereby support the evolution as well as the viability of a digital business.

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Conducting Design Science Research (DSR) has many risks. Extant literature, such as the Risk Management Framework for Design Science Research (RMF4DSR), provides advice for identifying risks, but provides few suggestions for specific treatments for the kinds of risks that potentially plague DSR. This paper analyses known DSR risks from RMF4DSR, augments them with other risks identified, and develops a purposeful artefact (TRiDS: Treatments for Risks in Design Science), which provides 46 specific suggestions for treating known risks in DSR. The treatments identified are classified into 13 different categories and reference is made to relevant literature for guiding the application of each treatment. The treatment suggestions and guidance serve as a supplement to existing frameworks and methods for risk identification and management in DSR.

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