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While information systems development (ISD) projects play a pivotal role in maintaining a competitive advantage, ISD project distress evolves dramatically. Given the complex and dynamic nature of ISD projects, they are prone to Escalation of Commitment (EoC), the irrational tendency to persist with failing courses of action. While EoC has been studied to a great extent in management and psychology literature, research on its role in the context of ISD project distress is fragmented, making it challenging to develop de-escalation strategies. To address this gap, we conduct a literature review on EoC in the context of ISD project distress. The proposed nomological net including triggering factors, consequences, mediators, and moderators, as well as a set of developed de-escalation strategies can serve as an inspiration and foundation for future IS researchers. By presenting this review we hope to inform future IS research to acknowledge the role of EoC in ISD projects.

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Online training to improve problem-solving skills has become increasingly important in management learning. In online environments, learners take a more active role which can lead to stressful situations and decreased motivation. Gamification can be applied to support learner motivation and emotionally boost engagement by using game-like elements in a non-game context. However, using gamification does not necessarily result in supporting positive learning outcomes. Our analysis sheds light on these aspects and evaluates the effects of points and badges on engagement and problem-solving outcomes. We used an experimental approach with a fully randomized pre-test/post-test design of a gamified online management training program with 68 participants. The results demonstrate that points and badges do not directly improve problem-solving skills but are mediated by emotional engagement to positively influence problem-solving skills. Additionally, satisfaction with the gamification learning process positively relates to emotional engagement. Thus, when creating online training programs, it is essential to consider how to engage students and to think about the design of the learning environment. By identifying the limitations of gamification elements, the study’s results can provide educators with information about the design implications of online training programs for management learning.

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Design Science Research (DSR) is a pragmatic, utility-oriented, scientific approach to solving relevant Information Technology (IT) and Information Systems (IS) related organisational problems. It represents one of two essential paradigms in IS research, and its research output is not descriptive but prescriptive. It instructs about how gen-eral problems of the same class can be solved. Research projects in DSR (i.e., design research projects) involve many stakeholders from research and practice. They are iterative, lengthy, and complex, combining the roams of theory (ensuring rigour by using existing knowledge) and practice (ensuring relevance by actively integrating the stakeholders of the problem in the research process). At the same time, such re-search contributes both to research (through the identification of prescriptive means-end relationships) and to practice (providing instructions to solve practical organisa-tional problems). This very brief summary of DSR already makes one thing evident: Design research project communication is essential for this kind of research. Poor communication leads to inefficient exchange with practice, rejected research articles, slow accumula-tion of knowledge, or low practical impact of IS research. Another aspect that is re-vealed is that these projects are likely to be complicated to communicate (causes in-clude, e.g., lengthiness, multi-stakeholder involvement, practitioner and academic audiences, addressing problem classes rather than problem instances). This problem has been recognised in various instances (e.g., writing of design research articles for academic journals), but existing support on how to communicate is ineffective, as many perceive the communication of design research projects to be a problem. This dissertation addresses that. Employing DSR as the overarching research methodology, the presented research in this dissertation provides a solution that guides design researchers in general commu-nication of their projects (DSR communication framework), in writing design re-search articles (a process with prescriptive instructions for each step), and in present-ing DSR research designs (a checklist for effective DSR research design presentation, e.g., in the context of a research methods course). These artefacts (DSR contribu-tions) are both built and evaluated based on empirical studies. This research thus of-fers a solution to the research problem. It furthermore puts a new topic of research on the map: DSR communication.

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Kognitive Automation geht über die regelbasierte Geschäftsprozessautomation hinaus und zielt auf kognitive Wissens- und Dienstleistungsarbeit ab. Dies ermöglicht die Automatisierung von Aufgaben und Prozessen, die noch vor einem Jahrzehnt unvorstellbar schien. Sie hat somit das Potenzial, Front- und Backoffices in ähnlicher Weise zu beeinflussen wie physische Roboter bei Produktionsanlagen. Kognitive Automatisierung stellt Unternehmen jedoch vor neue Herausforderungen bei der Entscheidung über das Automatisierungspotenzial von Anwendungsfällen, was zu einer geringen Akzeptanz und hohen Misserfolgsraten entsprechender Projekte führt. Hinzu kommt der trans- und interdisziplinäre Charakter des Phänomens der kognitiven Automation, der dazu führt, dass es in Forschung und Praxis an einem gemeinsamen Verständnis und einer einheitlichen Terminologie fehlt, um dieses Feld voranzutreiben. Vor diesem Hintergrund verfolgt diese Dissertation das Ziel, Organisationen in die Lage zu versetzen, strukturierter und fundierter zu entscheiden, ob eine Aufgabe oder ein Prozess für kognitive Automation geeignet ist und wie diese Erkenntnisse in entsprechende Projektanforderungen übersetzt werden können. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, folgt die Dissertation einem qualitativen, sozialkonstruktivistischen Paradigma, das auf systematischen Literaturrecherchen, Interviews, Fokusgruppen, Fallstudien, Aktionsforschung und gestaltungsorientierter Forschung basiert. Zunächst konzeptualisiere ich in meiner Dissertation die unterschiedlichen Perspektiven der kognitiven Automation, um ein repräsentatives Bild des Phänomens und seiner unterstützenden Technologien zu zeichnen. Die ganzheitliche Konzeptualisierung dient als Grundlage, auf der zukünftige Forschung aufbauen kann und ebnet den Weg für eine tiefgreifendere konzeptionelle Konvergenz in diesem Feld. Zweitens entwickle und teste ich ein Modell zur Bewertung von Anwendungsfällen kognitiver Automation. Das Modell soll Unternehmen helfen, fundiertere Entscheidungen bei der Auswahl von Anwendungsfällen für kognitive Automation und der Planung dieser Initiativen zu treffen. Aus Forschungssicht werden die identifizierten Determinanten unser Verständnis von kognitiver Automation und von Künstlicher Intelligenz als deren treibende Kraft vertiefen. Drittens bette ich das Modell in eine Methode ein, um es in die Praxis zu übertragen. Dabei erweitere ich die Frage, «welche» Faktoren bei der Bewertung der Eignung von Anwendungsfällen zu berücksichtigen sind, um die Frage, «wie» diese Bewertung im Sinne reproduzierbarer Managementpraktiken durchgeführt werden soll. Ich ergänze die Methode um eine Reihe allgemeiner Projektmanagement-Praktiken für Künstliche Intelligenz, die helfen nach der Bewertung von Anwendungsfällen Projektimplikationen für kognitive Automatisierungsprojekte abzuleiten.

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Todays organizations have to continuously transform themselves to survive in the rapidly changing environment. In particular, continuous, rapid developments of digital technologies are key drivers of these changes. They leave hardly any organization, even organizations with long traditions, unaffected. The resulting urge to progress with digital transformation has motivated many organizations to set up large-scale, enterprise-wide programs. However, successfully realizing these programs is far from an easy task. While program management as a discipline has significantly matured over the previous years, increasing the understanding of and improving program governance to ensure direction, coordination, and control of joint objectives in programs, has been neglected in both theory and practice. This dissertation studies governance in digital transformation programs. Firstly, it investigates the importance of program governance as a means of ensuring program success. Secondly, it studies the current shortcomings of program governance in the context of the concurrence of opposing agile and traditional management approaches within programs and in the context of the concurrence of opposing local and global interests of involved stakeholders. Thirdly, it provides insights into possible improvements and further developments of program governance based on tension theory. To gain rich empirical insights, all papers of this dissertation are based on a qualitative research approach. The dissertation is of value for researchers and practitioners: The findings of the papers constituting this dissertation contribute to a better understanding of why governance is important to successfully progress with digital transformation endeavors and how it can be improved through ensuring both context- and tension-awareness. This dissertation lays the foundation to further investigate and develop governance practice in temporary organizations set up to progress with enterprise-wide digital transformation.

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Die Fähigkeit, überzeugende Argumente zu formulieren, ist nicht nur von grundlegender Bedeutung, um ein Publikum von neuen Ideen zu überzeugen, sondern spielt auch eine wichtige Rolle bei strategischen Entscheidungsfindungen, bei Verhandlungen und im allgemeinen politischen Diskurs. Menschen haben jedoch oft Schwierigkeiten, Argumentationsfähigkeiten zu entwickeln. Ein Grund dafür ist der Mangel an individuellem und formativem Feedback im Lernprozess von Studierenden oder in der Aus-und Weiterbildung. Eine Rückmeldung über den Stand der individuellen Argumentationsfähigkeiten von Lernenden ist zeitaufwändig und für Lehrkräfte nicht skalierbar. Neuartige adaptive Argu-mentationslernsysteme haben das Potential, Studierende zu unterstützen selbstständig und unabhängig von Lehrkräften, Zeit und Ort zu lernen. Obwohl der Einsatz von Künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) ein vielversprechender Ansatz zu sein scheint, fehlt es in der aktuellen Literatur (1) an Erkenntnissen über die theoriebasierten und lernerzentrierten Anforderungen an Lernen von Argumentationsfähigkeiten mit adaptiven Lerntools, (2) an Wissen darüber wie KI-basierte adaptive Argumentationslernsysteme konzipiert und gebaut werden können, um die individuellen Lernpfade und die Nutzung der Studierenden zu verbessern und (3) an Erkenntnissen über den Einfluss adaptiver Argumentationslernsysteme auf die eigentlichen Argumentationsfähigkeiten der Studierenden.Diese Dissertation greift diese drei Forschungslücken auf und untersucht das Potential von adaptivem Lernen von Argumentationsfähigkeiten mit Hilfe von KI. Dazu werden neue technologiegestützte pädagogische Konzepte entworfen, implementiert und evaluiert, die Studierende aktiv unterstützen, strukturiert, logisch und reflektiert zu argumentieren. Auf Basis eines designwissenschaftlichen Forschungsansatzes entwickle ich neue studierenden-zentrierte pädagogische Szenarien mit empirisch evaluierten Designprinzipien, linguistischen Korpora, ML-Algorithmen und innovativen Lernwerkzeugen. Ich stelle dazu zwei neuartige Klassen von IT-basierten Lernwerkzeugen für das Argumentieren vor: (1) KI-basierte Systeme zur Unterstützung des Schreibens von Argumenten und (2) dialog-basierte Argumentationslernsysteme. Meine Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die beiden neuen Systemklassen den Studierenden helfen bessere Argumentationsfähigkeiten in verschiedenen pädagogischen Bereichen zu entwickeln. Dabei überbrücke ich erstmals die Grenzen von Argumentationslernen und Argumentation Mining, indem ich neue pädagogische Szenarien für adaptives Argumentationslernen aus einer studierendenzentrierten Perspektive untersuche. Daher trägt diese Arbeit nicht nur mit neuen, reichhaltigen Argumentationsannotationsschemata, Argumentationskorpora und neuartigen ML-Modellen in deutscher Sprache bei, sondern vor allem mit Einblicken in die allgemeine sozio-technische Einbettung, das Design und die Auswirkungen von KI-basierten Argumentationslernsysteme, um Lernenden zu helfen besser zu argumentieren.

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Innovation is one of the most important antecedents of a company's competitive advantage and long-term survival. Prior research has alluded to teamwork being a primary driver of a firm's innovation capacity. Still, many firms struggle with providing an environment that supports innovation teams in working efficiently together. Thereby, a team's failure can be attributed to several factors, such as inefficient working methods or a lack of internal communication that leads to so-called innovation blockages. There are a number of approaches that are targeted at supporting teams to overcome innovation blockages, but they mainly focus on the collaboration process and rarely consider the needs and potentials of individual team members. In this paper, we argue that Conversational Agents (CAs) can efficiently support teams in overcoming innovation blockages by enhancing collaborative work practices and, specifically, by facilitating the contribution of each individual team member. To that end, we design a CA as a team facilitator that provides nudges to reduce innovation blocking actions according to requirements we systematically derived from scientific literature and practice. Based on a rigorous evaluation, we demonstrate the potential of CAs to reduce the frequency of innovation blockages. The research implications for the development and deployment of CAs as team facilitators are explored.

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Voice assistants’ (VAs) increasingly nuanced and natural communication opens up new opportunities for the experience of users, providing task assistance and automation possibilities, and also offer an easy interface to digital services and ecosystems. However, VAs face various problems, such as low adoption and satisfaction rates as well as other negative reactions from users. Companies, therefore, need to consider how individuals utilize VAs and what contributes to user satisfaction. Key for the design of VAs are their unique affordances and their agentic nature that distinguish these IT artifacts from non-agentic IS. A configurative and dynamic approach enables to shed light on the complex causalities underlying user outcomes with these novel systems. Consequently, we examine in this study how individuals actualize the affordances of VAs during the initial adoption stage. For this purpose, we draw on a diary study research design that examines affordance actualization processes with new VA users. We examine with a configurational approach, how the actualization of VA affordances contributes to the outcomes of VAs, i.e., in our case user satisfaction. The results of our diary study show distinct patterns of functional affordance configurations. In addition, we show that affordances unfold and evolve over time. The derived implications provide a configurative theoretical understanding for the role of VAs affordances for user satisfaction that provides practitioners useful guidance to actualize the potential of VAs.

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Agile work organization has experienced a significant increase in acceptance in recent years. However, literature falls short in explaining the transformation process that results from the implementation of agile work organization as a means of achieving increased adaptability, rate of speed and flexibility. We apply a process ontology to agile work organization by following three multinational firms that apply agile work organization, utilizing a case study approach over three years. At the macro level, our theory describes the transformation process set in motion by agile work organization as a three-phase process. At the micro level, we show that this transformation process is driven by specific design decisions on individual elements. Thus, our process theory contributes to a better understanding of agile work organization as a means to achieve organizational agility and to STS theory by showing that the emergence and constitution of STS are mainly driven by micro-level processes.

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get_appRoman Rietsche, Christian Dremel, Samuel Bosch, Léa Steinacker, Miriam Meckel, Jan Marco Leimeister
Journal paper
Quantum computing promises to be the next disruptive technology, with numerous possible applications and implications for organizations and markets. Quantum computers exploit principles of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and entanglement, to represent data and perform operations on them. Both of these principles enable quantum computers to solve very specific, complex problems significantly faster than standard computers. Against this backdrop, this fundamental gives a brief overview of the three layers of a quantum computer: hardware, system software, and application layer. Furthermore, we introduce potential application areas of quantum computing and possible research directions for the field of information systems.

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) shows great potential to tackle environmental sustainability issues that are critical to the survival of Humanity and Planet Earth. However, the development and use of AI causes indirect emissions leading to detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, it is important for organizations, researchers, and practitioners in the Information Systems (IS) domain to understand both the positive and negative effects of AI on the environment. This article contributes to this topic by performing a theoretical review of the literature at the intersection of AI and Sustainability to determine the current research streams. Further, this article adopts the affordance theory as a theoretical lens with the goal to identify the affordances of Sustainable AI – a field that encompasses the research areas ‘AI for Sustainability as well as ‘Sustainability of AI’ – in the Green IS community. The identified affordances would enable researchers and practitioners to design and use Sustainable AI systems.

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Background: Investigating ways to improve well-being in everyday situations as a means of fostering mental health has gained substantial interest in recent years. For many people, the daily commute by car is a particularly straining situation of the day, and thus researchers have already designed various in-vehicle well-being interventions for a better commuting experience. Current research has validated such interventions but is limited to isolating effects in controlled experiments that are generally not representative of real-world driving conditions. Objective: The aim of the study is to identify cause--effect relationships between driving behavior and well-being in a real-world setting. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of when to trigger interventions. Methods: We conducted a field study in which we provided a demographically diverse sample of 10 commuters with a car for daily driving over a period of 4 months. Before and after each trip, the drivers had to fill out a questionnaire about their state of well-being, which was operationalized as arousal and valence. We equipped the cars with sensors that recorded driving behavior, such as sudden braking. We also captured trip-dependent factors, such as the length of the drive, and predetermined factors, such as the weather. We conducted a causal analysis based on a causal directed acyclic graph (DAG) to examine cause--effect relationships from the observational data and to isolate the causal chains between the examined variables. We did so by applying the backdoor criterion to the data-based graphical model. The hereby compiled adjustment set was used in a multiple regression to estimate the causal effects between the variables. Results: The causal analysis showed that a higher level of arousal before driving influences driving behavior. Higher arousal reduced the frequency of sudden events (P=.04) as well as the average speed (P=.001), while fostering active steering (P<.001). In turn, more frequent braking (P<.001) increased arousal after the drive, while a longer trip (P<.001) with a higher average speed (P<.001) reduced arousal. The prevalence of sunshine (P<.001) increased arousal and of occupants (P<.001) increased valence (P<.001) before and after driving. Conclusions: The examination of cause--effect relationships unveiled significant interactions between well-being and driving. A low level of predriving arousal impairs driving behavior, which manifests itself in more frequent sudden events and less anticipatory driving. Driving has a stronger effect on arousal than on valence. In particular, monotonous driving situations at high speeds with low cognitive demand increase the risk of the driver becoming tired (low arousal), thus impairing driving behavior. By combining the identified causal chains, states of vulnerability can be inferred that may form the basis for timely delivered interventions to improve well-being while driving.

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Journal paper
Viele der wertvollsten Unternehmen der Welt betreiben ihr Geschäft auf Basis einer digitalen Plattform samt umgebendem Ökosystem. Während es in der Theorie zahlreiche Erklärungs-und Gestaltungsansätze für die erfolgreiche Umsetzung gibt, gelten diese wirtschaftlich attraktiven Geschäftsmodelle in der Praxis nach wie vor als herausfordernd. Auf der empirischen Grundlage von sieben Plattform-Innovationsprojekten und mit Methoden der Fallstudienforschung untersucht der vorliegende Artikel, welche Rolle digitale Plattformen in der Praxis spielen und wie diese Artefakte entwickelt werden können. Mit den Ergebnissen in Form von vier Einsatz- (Platform-as-a-Core, Platform-as-an-Evolution, Platform-as-an-Enabler, Platform-as-an-Add-On) und vier Entwicklungsmodellen (Methodic Problem Solvers, Methodic Strategists, Methodic Leaders, Ad-Hoc Developers) kann gefolgert werden: Digitale Plattformen können in der Praxis vielfältige Rollen einnehmen und deren Entwicklung kann mit unterschiedlicher Methodikintensität erfolgen. Für die Praxis profitieren Fach- und Führungskräfte von industrienahen Einblicken und abgeleiteten Handlungsempfehlungen. Für die Forschung wird der Wissensfundus im Bereich des Designs und der Entwicklung digitaler Plattformen erweitert.

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Technical debt (TD) is a technical compromise wherein the ability to maintain information technology (IT) applications over the long term is sacrificed for short-term goals. TD occurs when software development teams undergo constant pressure to release applications swiftly, on a tight schedule. The accumulation of TD, which often leads to a significant cost surplus, presents a ubiquitous challenge in technology-driven organisations. To keep TD levels under control, many organisations implement top-down mechanisms that impose enterprise-wide principles on software development teams. This clinical research presents a complementary but distinct approach to managing TD. A digital nudge was introduced at Credit Suisse, a global financial services company, to help raise awareness and understanding, and stimulate actions related to TD decision-making in software development teams. This paper reports on the nudge’s clinical design, implementation, impact, and evaluation. As the nudge was effective in reducing TD in IT applications after one year of use, we demonstrate that digital nudges are viable means for guiding collective decisions in complex decision environments like that of TD management. Our findings have several implications for research and practice.

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IT carve-out projects are complex and cost-intensive components of M&A transactions. Existing research sheds little light on the determinants of IT carve-out project complexity and/or its effects on divestor performance. Instead, research has focused on the post-acquisition IT integration project and acquirer performance. This paper presents the first divestor-centric model of IT transactions from the divestor to the acquirer when a Business Unit in a Multi-Business Organization (MBO) is carved out and integrated into another MBO. The model explains how divestor business and IT alignment pre-conditions contribute to increased IT carve-out project complexity. Such complexity increases IT carve-out project time to physical IT separation and creates IT stranded assets, which decrease post-divestment business, IT alignment and divestor performance. The current recommended strategy of adopting transitional service agreements (TSAs) to handle IT carve-out complexity is compared with two new proactive strategies derived from the model. TSA-based strategies restrict the divestor from both decommissioning IT stranded assets and reconfiguring its IT assets to support its new post-divestment business strategy. The two new strategies address IT carve-out complexity without incurring the negative effects from adopting TSAs

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The potentials of artificial intelligence (AI) are manifold and their discussion has gained momentum in research and practice. In the same realm, AI also raises fears among employees of being replaced by AI technologies and, therefore, shying away from using it. Generally, employees want to be empowered to do their job and seek both more responsibility, as well as make their own decisions. In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review that investigates the current state of the literature on the potential empowering effects of AI-based human-machine behavior. We thus sorted the literature into three behavioral categories: humans shape machine behavior, machines shape human behavior, human-machine co-behavior and crossed them with psychological empowerment dimensions of significance, competence, self-determination, and influence. Our results show corresponding literature streams and provide future research directions in a field that is likely to disrupt the way we work in the future.

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Designing for system trustworthiness promises to address challenges of opaqueness and uncertainty introduced through Machine Learning (ML)-based systems by allowing users to understand and interpret systems’ underlying working mechanisms. However, empirical exploration of trustworthiness measures and their effectiveness is scarce and inconclusive. We investigated how varying model confidence (70% versus 90%) and making confidence levels transparent to the user (explanatory statement versus no explanatory statement) may influence perceptions of trust and performance in an information retrieval task assisted by a conversational system. In a field experiment with 104 users, our findings indicate that neither model confidence nor transparency seem to impact trust in the conversational system. However, users’ task performance is positively influenced by both transparency and trust in the system. While this study considers the complex interplay of system trustworthiness, trust, and subsequent behavioral outcomes, our results call into question the relation between system trustworthiness and user trust.

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get_appNaim Zierau, Christian Alexander Hildebrand, Anouk Samantha Bergner, Francesc Busquet I Segui, Anuschka Schmitt, Jan Marco Leimeister
Journal paper
Voice-based interfaces provide new opportunities for firms to interact with consumers along the customer journey. The current work demonstrates across four studies that voice-based (as opposed to text-based) interfaces promote more flow-like user experiences, resulting in more positively-valenced service experiences, and ultimately more favorable behavioral firm outcomes (i.e., contract renewal, conversion rates, and consumer sentiment). Moreover, we also provide evidence for two important boundary conditions that reduce such flow-like user experiences in voice-based interfaces (i.e., semantic disfluency and the amount of conversational turns). The findings of this research highlight how fundamental theories of human communication can be harnessed to create more experiential service experiences with positive downstream consequences for consumers and firms. These findings have important practical implications for firms that aim at leveraging the potential of voice-based interfaces to improve consumers' service experiences and the theory-driven ''conversational design'' of voice-based interfaces.

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Conference or Workshop Item
Algorithmic forecasts outperform human forecasts in many tasks. State-of-the-art machine learning (ML) algorithms have even widened that gap. Since sales forecasting plays a key role in business profitability, ML based sales forecasting can have significant advantages. However, individuals are resistant to use algorithmic forecasts. To overcome this algorithm aversion, explainable AI (XAI), where an explanation interface (XI) provides model predictions and explanations to the user, can help. However, current XAI techniques are incomprehensible for laymen. Despite the economic relevance of sales forecasting, there is no significant research effort towards aiding non-expert users make better decisions using ML forecasting systems by designing appropriate XI. We contribute to this research gap by designing a model-agnostic XI for laymen. We propose a design theory for XIs, instantiate our theory and report initial formative evaluation results. A real-world evaluation context is used: A medium-sized Swiss bakery chain provides past sales data and human forecasts.

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Many organizations struggle to measure, control, and manage agility in a manner of continuous improvement. Therefore, we draw on Design Science Research to develop and test a tool for Continuously Assessing and Improving Agile Practices (CAIAP). CAIAP helps agile practitioners to monitor the alignment of “as is” agile practices on individual, team levels with the overall agile strategy of the organization. To develop CAIAP, we first empirically gather requirements, draw on the ICAP framework to base the tool development on a solid conceptual and theoretical basis. CAIAP helps agile practitioners to constantly monitor their agile practices on individual and team levels and to identify areas for improvement to gain greater organizational agility. To researchers, CAIAP helps to make the unit of analysis of agile work explainable, predictable and helps researchers to guide their own empirical research as well as serve as a basis for designing further tool support.

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The Design Science Research (DSR) paradigm is highly relevant to the Information Systems (IS) discipline because DSR aims to improve the state of practice and contribute design knowledge through the systematic construction of useful artefacts. Since study designs can be understood as useful artefacts, DSR can also contribute to improving conceptualizing a research project. This study developed a taxonomy with relevant dimensions and characteristics for DSR research. Such a taxonomy is useful for analyzing existing DSR study designs and successful DSR study design patterns. In addition, the taxonomy is valuable for identifying DSR study design principles (dependencies among characteristics) and subsequently for systematically designing DSR studies. We constructed the DSR study taxonomy through a classification process following the taxonomy development approach of Nickerson et al.

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In-company training is facing new challenges in preparing employees for the demands of digitalized and automated manufacturing. New training concepts like microlearning are necessary to support work-process-related learning. To handle the limitations of microlearning, we develop a 360-degree learning system to demonstrate a realistic work environment. Nonetheless, there is a lack of design knowledge supporting the motivation and performance of employees using the system. Based on a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews, we have developed design requirements for interactive 360-degree learning environments. We used a workshop-based mixed-method approach with interviews, concept maps, and video analysis to evaluate the motivation and performance of precision mechanics within a prototypical work-process-oriented learning environment in an inter-company vocational training center. The results show a positive effect on learning outcomes and motivation. In addition, the ease of use and sense of presence while using the learning environment are rated as high. We contribute to theory by shedding new light on learners' motivation and performance within work-process-oriented interactive 360-degree learning environments. Furthermore, we offer guidelines for developing such interactive 360-degree learning environments.

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Digital Transformation challenges companies in all industries. Ongoing improvement of their successful existing business is not enough, they must simultaneously build new digital business models to compensate for revenue sources that may already be disappearing. In new strategic ventures (exploration), the concept of organizational ambidexterity reflects the capabilities of companies to simultaneously rely on their core competencies from their existing business (exploitation) to achieve competitive advantage. This paper presents a catalog of criteria that describe the ability of organizations to implement organizational ambidexterity specifically in strategic initiatives of Digital Transformation. The catalog serves as a management tool for assessing the current state of these capabilities, and for setting respective objectives. This initial management instrument can be further developed into a maturity model. Both IT expertise, as well as the interaction of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) and the more recent role of the Chief Digital Officer (CDO) are of central importance here, and hence constitute a difference from the general organizational ambidexterity concept. The catalog has been developed in an iterative Design Science Research approach with two design and evaluation cycles. It contains ready-to-use questions for a survey instrument regarding 46 design factors in seven dimensions with a total of 99 criteria. Several sources served as conceptual foundations. In particular, literature-based knowledge on role requirements for CIO and CDO, relevant subsets of criteria from maturity models, and assessments on general Digital Transformation, intrapreneurship, and innovation culture for digital solutions. The naming as CDO- CIO Do-it Kit is derived from the first letters of the seven dimensions: CDO-CIO collaboration, Digital Transformation strategy, organization, innovation, transformation management, culture & competence, and IT & IT competence.

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Conference or Workshop Item
Advances in Natural Language Processing offer techniques to de- tect the empathy level in texts. To test if individual feedback on certain students’ empathy level in their peer review writing pro- cess will help them to write more empathic reviews, we developed ELEA, an adaptive writing support system that provides students with feedback on the cognitive and emotional empathy structures. We compared ELEA to a proven empathy support tool in a peer review setting with 119 students. We found students using ELEA wrote more empathic peer reviews with a higher level of emotional empathy compared to the control group. The high perceived skill learning, the technology acceptance, and the level of enjoyment provide promising results to use such an approach as a feedback application in traditional learning settings. Our results indicate that learning applications based on NLP are able to foster empathic writing skills of students in peer review scenarios.

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Many industries are affected by the shift to platform business models and leveraging network effects is vital for every single company. At the same time, latest research shows that many companies, in particular established pipeline businesses, struggle with this new notion of doing business. Building upon the success of the Business Model Navigator, we have developed the Platform Navigator – a toolbox to help you design and implement platform business models in your company. By reviewing the most important literature and studying more than 150 cases, we have identified 88 pattern cards across five phases. Not all patterns will be helpful for your business and the patterns are certainly not exhaustive. But we believe that every manager should be aware of them to sustain competitive advantage. Thus, the pattern cards and canvas will help you navigate through the Platform Economy.

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Viele CIOs (Chief Information Officer) in Unternehmen haben in der Pandemie einen hervorragenden Job gemacht. In der Zeit nach der Pandemie gilt es, diesen „Rückenwind“ und die Position des CIO neu zu definieren. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden fünf CIOs, Hanna Hennig von der Siemens AG, Andreas Maier von der AXA Schweiz, Michael Müller-Wünsch von OTTO, Rolf Olmesdahl, ehemals Raiffeisen Schweiz, Ursula Soritsch-Renier von Saint-Gobain Paris, und ein Executive-Search-Spezialist, Patrick Naef, Boyden AG, gefragt wie sie die Zukunft des CIO sehen. Alle sechs Persönlichkeiten, die an dem Dialog teilnahmen, sind übereinstimmend der Meinung, dass es auch noch 2030 CIOs geben wird und sie auf der einen Seite verstärkt Treiber der digitalen Transformation in ihrem Unternehmen sein sollten und sie auf der anderen Seite nach wie vor Verantwortung für das Funktionieren der digitalen Infrastruktur tragen.

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Volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) are drivers in today's business world. To perform amid this accelerated change and the digitalization progress, organizations are implementing agility. However, such an implementation does not happen without stumbling blocks and some fail. One reason for this is actors’ agile mindset (AM), which is necessary to deal succefully within a VUCA environment. Knowledge of the AM is in its infancy and conceptualization and measuring tools for it are lacking. Furthermore, the relation of the AM in terms of strategic agility and performance is still unclear. Our study aims to close these gaps. We examine AM through 15 interviews and a survey (N = 449) to predict strategic agility and performance. As a result, we conceptualize AM as an attitude that comprises four dimensions: attitude towards 1) learning spirit, 2) collaborative exchange, 3) empowered self-guidance, and 4) customer co-creation. Furthermore, we describe how actors with an AM deal with new technologies. We found that AM affects organizational performance mediated by strategic agility. These findings contribute to the agility and management research by providing a conceptualization and measuring instrument for AM. Furthermore, its relevance for strategic agility is explained and its relationship with organizational performance outlined

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Obwohl sich die Rolle und Bedeutung der IT in den meisten Unternehmen stark verändert hat, folgt die Strukturierung von CIO-Bereichen (und ihrer Wertbeiträge) meist noch einem funktionalen Paradigma – unter Bezugnahme auf „was wird gemacht“ oder „wie wird es gemacht“, manchmal auch „für wen wird es gemacht“. Eine funktionale bzw. ergebnisorientierte Strukturierung findet sich mittelbar auch in Ansätzen, welche die Wertschöpfungskette in den Mittelpunkt stellen oder agile Gestaltungsprinzipien berücksichtigen.Wir diskutieren bestehende Ansätze und schlagen ein neues Strukturierungsmodell vor, das die Aktivitäten des CIO-Bereichs aus der Perspektive „welcher Wertbeitrag wird erreicht“ (bzw. welche strategische Wirkung wird angestrebt) unterscheidet. Das sich ergebende Wirkungsorientierte Portfolio wird dabei in den Dimensionen Wirkungsbreite, Wirkungszeitraum und Wirkungstiefe abgebildet. Ausgehend von der Demonstration bestimmter Aspekte dieses Perspektivenwechsels in Form von zwei Anwendungsfällen werden die Potenziale und Konsequenzen einer wirkungsorientierten Strukturierung des CIO-Bereichs z. B. für die Kommunikation des CIO-Wertbeitrags, die Koordination mit anderen Führungsfunktionen und die Organisation von „Business Technology“ diskutiert.

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get_appJenny Zimmermann, Jonas Görgen, Emanuel de Bellis, Reto Hofstetter
Monograph
The Smart Products Report 2022, now in its second edition, is based on a representative study on the use and perception of smart products in Switzerland. It is published by the Institute of Behavioral Science and Technology at the University of St.Gallen as well as the Institute of Marketing and Analytics at the University of Lucerne in collaboration with Vorwerk AG. The Smart Products Report 2022 shows that smart products are widely used in Switzerland and are increasingly integrated into our everyday lives. Among the most frequently used smart products are smartwatches, robotic vacuum cleaners, and smart speakers. The findings also suggest that the perception of and relationship with these technologies is changing. For example, consumers perceive these technologies to increasingly take over the lead while consumers humanize their smart helpers by giving them nicknames. The widespread use and positive attitude toward smart products contrast personal and societal concerns. Therefore, smart products’ future success depends on every stakeholder recognizing and addressing both, the benefits perceived by consumers and their distinct concerns about smart products.

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The ability of students to self-monitor their learning paths is in demand as never before due to the recent rise of online education formats, which entails less interaction with lecturers. Recent advantages in educational process mining (EPM) offer new opportunities to monitor students’ learning paths by processing log data captured by technology-mediated learning environments. However, current literature falls short on providing user-centered design principles for IT-tools which can monitor learning paths using EPM. Hence, in this paper, we examine how to design a self-monitoring tool that supports students to evaluate their learning paths. Based on theoretical insights of 66 papers and nine user interviews, we propose seven design principles for an IT-tool which facilitates self-monitoring for students based on EPM. Further, we evaluate the design principles with seven potential users. Our results demonstrate a promising approach to help students improve their self-efficacy in their individual learning process using EPM.

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Driven by circumstances like the global pandemic many learners and educators realize the importance and value of self-regulated digital learning. To better support self-regulated learning, conversational agents have become more relevant. Conversational agents can act as tutor or as learning mate for learners. Although conversational agents have potential to better support self-regulated learning processes, challenges exist requiring implications about how to make these interactions more engaging and supportive. This study discusses the value of gamified conversational learning chatbots that use game elements to engage learners to guide researchers and practitioners to design conversational agents that effectively motivate learners and provide self-regulated learning at the same time. Therefore, we propose a systematically developed framework for gamifying educational conversational agents and contribute to theory by consolidating several theories about games, digital learning, and conversational agents and support practitioners by providing implications about what to care about when gamifying conversational agents

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Today’s servitized and digitalized society has significant implications for the economic system as value creation increasingly shifts towards digital services. Organizations are increasingly relying of artificial intelligence, which enables them to operate with novel technological artifacts like conversational agents (CA). These human-like AI-driven artifacts open new possibilities and channels for service providers to scale up their business even further and to create a business value or even to make processes more efficient. While we witness the results of that each day, we do not fully understand how such CAs can contribute to scaling up a business. Therefore, we conduct an analysis of service research and popular CAs to determine the status quo and highlight opportunities for scaling services with CAs. We contribute to theory by clarifying the meaning of scalability in combination with CAs and support practitioners by providing an overview about how organizations successfully scale their CAs.

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As organizations are challenged with volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA), developing agile capabilities becomes the first priority for most organizations to innovate and respond rapidly to external changes (Klimenko, Winter, & Rohner, 2019). However, a shift in management toward greater agility at the enterprise level poses major challenges for organizations trying to transform their slow-moving, top-down bureaucratic practices (Leybourn, 2019). In this dissertation project the author designed a Corporate Agility Maturity Model to support organizations in their transformational programs by providing guidance on systematically developing Corporate Agility capabilities in a certain sequence that follows the organizational learning journey. The author captured the Corporate Agility as an organizational phenomenon and, therefore, focused on Agility not on the team level or individual level, but at the highest organizational level, where enterprise-wide decisions are made for the entirety of the organization. Although maturity models are an established instrument to devise development paths, currently available maturity models often focus on the control of certain capabilities (doing things right) (Winter & Aier, 2020). The proposed Corporate Agility Maturity Model identifies the organizational Corporate Agility maturity level and derives a roadmap for developing the Corporate Agility capabilities in a sequence appropriate for a given type of organization (doing the right things).

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The uprise of the internet of things (IoT) has stimulated both digital platform natives and industry incumbents to compete for IoT platform leadership. While digital natives, such as Microsoft, Google, or Amazon denote experienced and well-studied platform owners, industry incumbents, such as IBM, General Electric, and AT&T have to learn how to extend their established pipeline businesses with IoT platforms. As socio-technical systems, IoT platforms offer industry incumbents the unique opportunity to profit from value cocreation, i.e., the joint development of products and services with third parties. While scholars have studied multiple mature digital platforms, research on platform establishment and industry incumbents capabilities to foster value cocreation is scarce. Thus, this thesis asks: How can industry incumbents successfully establish IoT platforms for value cocreation? Drawing on case study research, three pillars answer this overarching research question. Pillar one examines platform governance to understand what strategies support the value cocreation process and how they address specific challenges in enterprise IoT. Pillar two deals with the challenge of platform growth in the establishment phase. On the one hand, third parties decisions to join IoT platforms are studied. On the other hand, two modes that foster early platform growth are proposed. Pillar three explores how industry incumbents develop platform capabilities in form of organizational routines and how they aid their business transformations to run both pipelines and platforms. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to platform research and its successful establishment from a value cocreation perspective. In that, they extend prior findings on platform governance, growth, and capabilities. While the results are insightful for all stakeholders of complex platforms, such as IoT platforms, they particularly address industry incumbents and the shift in their role, and the capabilities needed to actively foster value cocreation. Thus, managers can act upon the recommendations presented in this thesis when establishing their IoT platforms. However, future research is needed to find additional success factors to thrive for IoT platform leadership.

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The Internet of Things (IoT) offers product companies the opportunity to develop an IoT business. Existing performance measurement systems (PMS) are unsuitable for measuring and managing the business logic of IoT business. Based on research conducted with 31 product companies, we present three measurement traps, a key performance indicators (KPI) set suited for steering IoT business in product companies, and three recommendations for implementing the KPI set. Companies can use the KPI set to manage their IoT businesses more effectively and avoid the measurement traps.

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get_appKarolina Marie Luise Schabert, Laura Raschle, Anna Fredholm, Lorenzo Pedrazzoli, Georgine Settelen, Annamina Rieder, Reinhard Jung
Conference or Workshop Item
Nudging und die Frage nach seiner Wirksamkeit wird im digitalen Zeitalter immer wichtiger, da Entscheidungen immer häufiger in digitalen Umgebungen getroffen werden. Gleichzeitig gibt es kaum Forschung zu den unbeabsichtigten und schädlichen Folgen von Nudging, auch als Backfiring bezeichnet. Das Paper beschäftigt sich deshalb mit der Rolle von Reaktanz im Zusammenhang mit Scarcity-Nudges. Es wurde ein Online-Experiment (n=180) auf einer fiktiven Hotelbuchungswebsite durchgeführt und der Einfluss zweier Varianten eines Scarcity-Nudges (Demand-Side vs. Supply-Side) auf die Reaktanz und die Kaufabsicht untersucht. Aufgezeigt werden konnte, dass die Reaktanz die Kaufabsicht, ausgelöst durch den Scarcity-Nudge auf der Supply-Side, reduziert. Auf der Demand-Side konnte kein Einfluss der Reaktanz auf die Kaufabsicht durch Scarcity-Nudges festgestellt werden.

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Wie sehen gelungene Studienprogramm-Reformen an einer spezifischen Hochschule aus? Welche Faktoren sind dabei wichtig und wie kann üblichen Herausforderungen erfolgreich begegnet werden? In diesem Beitrag stellen wir die Ergebnisse der Evaluation einer Studienprogramm-Reform an der Universität St. Gallen (HSG) dar. Ausgehend vom aktuellen Stand der wissenschaftlichen Diskussion um Studienprogramm-Reformen, werden Faktoren einer gelungenen Reform aus zwei Befragungen abgeleitet, die diese Reform begleiteten.

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get_appChristian Engel, Philipp Ebel, Jan Marco Leimeister
Journal paper
Facilitated by AI technology, the phenomenon of cognitive automation extends the scope of deterministic business process automation (BPA) through the probabilistic automation of knowledge and service work. By transforming work systems through cognitive automation, organizations are provided with vast strategic opportunities to gain business value. However, research lacks a unified conceptual lens on cognitive automation, which hinders scientific progress. Thus, based on a Systematic Literature Review, we describe the fundamentals of cognitive automation and provide an integrated conceptualization. We provide an overview of the major BPA approaches such as workflow management, robotic process automation, and Machine Learning-facilitated BPA while emphasizing their complementary relationships. Furthermore, we show how the phenomenon of cognitive automation can be instantiated by Machine Learning-facilitated BPA systems that operate along the spectrum of lightweight and heavyweight IT implementations in larger IS ecosystems. Based on this, we describe the relevance and opportunities of cognitive automation in Information Systems research.

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The increasing digitalization and automatization in the manufacturing industry as well as the need to learn on the job has reinforced the need for much more granular learning, which has not yet impacted the design of learning materials. In this regard, granular learning concepts require situated learning materials to support self-directed learning in the workplace in a targeted manner. Co-creation approaches offer promising opportunities to support employees in the independent design of such situated learning materials. Using an action-design research (ADR) approach, we derived requirements from co-creation concepts and practice by conducting focus group workshops in manufacturing and vocational training schools to develop design principles for a co-creation system that supports employees through the creation process of work-process-related learning material. Consequently, we formulate four design principles for the design of a collaborative learning and qualification system for manufacturing. Using an innovative mixed methods approach, we validate these design principles and design features to demonstrate the success of the developed artifact. The results provide insights regarding the design of a co-creation system to support learners in the co-creation of learning material with the consideration of cognitive load (CL). Our study contributes to research and practice by proposing novel design principles for supporting employees in peer creation processes. Furthermore, our study reveals how co-creation systems can support the collaborative development of learning materials in the work process.

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Design science projects are of great interest in information systems (IS) research. Typically, design-oriented projects generate valuable design knowledge through the design and possible instantiation of artifacts. Although designing novel artifacts and accumulating design knowledge is common practice in IS, there is still limited shared knowledge about the distinctive characteristics of design knowledge to facilitate its accumulation. To address this issue, we develop a design knowledge taxonomy and contribute to a deeper understanding of design knowledge properties. The taxonomy is grounded on a systematic literature review, followed by a combination of empirical-to-conceptual and conceptual-to-empirical iterations. We evaluate the taxonomy by interviewing six domain experts and demonstrate its practical application and utility. Thus, the taxonomy consists of key dimensions and characteristics of design knowledge and contributes to a better scientific understanding of its characteristics. Practitioners can use the taxonomy as an instrument to further understand, design, and accumulate design knowledge.

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To ensure that an intended target group accepts and uses an information system (IS) is a major challenge for service systems engineering and a key interest in IS research. On the one hand, individuals’ cultural values affect their willingness to use an IS; on the other hand, information technology (IT) is neither value-neutral and, thus, also affects IT acceptance and usage. Therefore, the adaptation of IS should consider both sources of value. Thus, in this paper, we present the theory-driven design of a method for culture-sensitive IS adaptation that draws on IT-culture conflict theory. Our two-fold evaluation approach results show that the method enables to create feasible results for developing culture-sensitive design solutions for IS. As a theoretical contribution, we contribute to the exploration of culture in IS development; as a practical contribution, we provide guidance in how to adapt IS for specific target groups.

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As more and more organizations reach the limits of their internal capabilities to deal with the challenges induced by digital transformation, they are increasingly forced to seek external digitalization opportunities. In particular, small and medium enterprises are affected by this due to their limited human and financial resources. Currently, there is a lack of overview of options considering limited internal digital capabilities and resources. Thus, we choose an action design research approach to develop an external digitalization activity navigator. As a result, we derive five design principles for successful navigation and 30 activities, which are presented as design pattern cards. Our work can help practitioners and scholars alike to structure external digitalization activities. After discussing the insights, we outline directions for future research. We conclude by noting the managerial implications of our findings.

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Although the nexus of Design Thinking (DT) and corporate entrepreneurship is heralded to be promising, the concrete compositional architecture of how DT manifests in practice has received limited scholarly attention. Drawing on the argument that DT can facilitate intrapreneurial innovation as it enables effectual cognition, we developed a multidimensional assessment model that measures DT for intrapreneurial innovation in an organizational context and applied it via an online survey to 547 organizations of different sizes and industries. An analysis of the dimensional and sub-dimensional values obtained from the quantitative survey data in general, and with regard to industry and firm size types in detail, enriches our understanding of DT’s manifestation in practice. We provide practitioners a useful tool to assess, benchmark, plan, analyze, and communicate the use of DT for intrapreneurial innovation, and guide future DT and entrepreneurship researchers seeking practitioner-relevant insights with nine propositions derived from our observations.

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To equip students with practical capability to innovate, academic institutions are promoting industry collaboration projects where students use creative approaches, for example, design thinking, to solve complex business challenges. In creative work, the ability to reflect on the current team state and to continuously improve based on these insights is vital for effective teams. However, research on the role of digital technology to support collaborative reflection is still in its infancy. This study aims to present a digital solution that uses micro surveys and concepts of Educational Data Mining (EDM) to support collaborative reflection of students working in creativity-driven engineering projects. Using design science research, we identify design requirements of the InnoPulse tool, implement the corresponding design features and evaluate our digital solution in a real-world educational setting. Our findings pave the way for the potential of using EDM concepts to improve collaborative reflection of students using DT methods.

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